Presidential elections provide one opportunity to shine some light on how Big Business seeks to create a political environment favorable to its interests. Between now and November 2008, Corporations and Health Watch will include periodic reports on the positions of leading Presidential candidates on public oversight of corporate practices that influence health; the elections roles of the pharmaceutical, food, tobacco, automobile and other industries, and the prior legislative records and corporate involvement of major candidates. Our first report focuses on the role of money: what industries are contributing to the various candidates. Our focus here and in future reports is on the role of the industries monitored by Corporate Health Watch: alcohol, automobiles, firearms, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals and tobacco.
Using analyses conducted by Open Secrets at the Center for Responsive Politics, we can identify contributions made to the 2008 Presidential campaigns by both political action committees (PACs) and individuals affiliated with a particular industry (usually as a result of employment) through September 30, 2007. Final 2007 reports will be available at the end of January 2008. Our report covers the 3 major Democratic candidates and the 5 leading Republicans.
PAC and Individual Contributions by Selected Industries for 2008 Presidential Candidates
|Candidate||Registered Lobbyists||Pharma & Health Products||Health Profs||Tobacco|
|Rudolph W. Giuliani||$212,100||$138,850||$1,026,452||$77,400|
Totals on these charts are calculated from PAC contributions and contributions from individuals giving more than $200, as reported to the Federal Election Commission. Individual contributions are generally categorized based on the donor’s occupation/employer, although individuals may be classified instead as ideological donors if they’ve given more than $200 to an ideological PAC. Shows contributions through September 30, 2007.
Source: Open Secrets
As shown above, Hilary Clinton led the Democratic field in contributions from all four categories of contributors, although Barack Obama was a close second in contributions from the pharmaceutical industry and from health professionals and their organizations. On the Republican side, Mitt Romney led the pack in total fund raising form these four sources with Rudolph W. Giuliani a close second. Health professionals split their contributions fairly evenly among Republicans and Democrats as did the pharmaceutical industry and registered lobbyists. Only tobacco consistently favored Republicans, giving about twice as much to them as to Democratic candidates. Note that on the Democratic side, the level of contributions were somewhat similar to the level of support received from Iowa caucus goers and New Hampshire voters. For the Republicans, however, Iowa winner Mike Huckabee received few contributions perhaps because of his late rise in the campaign, while candidate Rudolph Giuliani won substantial support from contributors but not Iowa or New Hampshire voters.
Industry’s bipartisan approach to political contributions reflects both the heterogeneity of these categories, at least within mainstream American politics, but also the hedge- your-bets philosophy of special interests. No matter who wins, they want a friend in the White House. Registered lobbyists larger contributions to Clinton and McCain may demonstrate these candidates’ longer tenure in Washington and thus their established relationships with lobbyists.
While both the pharmaceutical and health products industry and health professionals (hospitals, medical associations, medical suppliers) provided substantial support to several candidates, these industries were not the major contributors to these campaigns. Donors from the securities and investment, legal, hedge fund and real estate industries were more significant donors to most major candidates than the industries shown in the table above.
Role of the Pharmaceutical Industry
As James Ridgeway and Joan Casella noted in Mother Jones recently, “Any candidate who genuinely plans to confront Big Pharma must be prepared to give up a boatload of cash”. Between 1998 and 2007, the pharmaceutical industry spent more on lobbying than any other industry, spending a total of $1.3 billion with $191 million in 2006 alone. Between 1990 and 2007, drug manufacturers contributed a total of $149 million to federal election campaigns. On the Democratic side, John Edwards has failed to raise significant contributions from Big Pharma, perhaps because of his prior life as a trial lawyer who won large settlements from pharmaceutical and health care industries.
Another perspective comes from an examination of PAC contributions to the Presidential candidates. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, as shown below, business PACS heavily favor Republican candidates and Labor PACS, not much of a presence in 2008 contributions to date, heavily favor the campaign of John Edwards. Single issue groups are organizations that span the ideological spectrum and support or oppose issues such as abortion, gun control, or gay marriage. They constitute a major component of Barack Obama’s PAC contributions but without analyses of the specific sources it is difficult to draw conclusions.
Finally, it is worth noting that PAC contributions constitute no more than 1% of total contributions to any candidate and do not play a major role in funding campaigns. Their value lies in showing how organized political interests are rating the various candidates.
Per cent sources of PAC Contributions for 2008 Presidential Candidates
The totals in these charts are calculated from PAC contributions, as reported to the Federal Election Commission. Contributions from individuals are not included in this breakdown.
Source: Open Secrets
View CHW’s coverage on Corporations, Health and the 2008 Presidential Race:
|Candidate||Business||Labor||Single Issue Groups||Total contributions|
|Rudolph W. Giuliani||70%||1%||29%||$265,992|