Category Archives: Alcohol

Industry’s Charade of Advertising Self-Regulation

Cross-posted from Appetite for Profit.

Every so often in my work at Marin Institute, we get a complaint from someone about an alcohol advertisement they’ve seen in their community they think shouldn’t be there. Most of the time, they’re right. In the role of industry watchdog, I’ve taken on the responsibility to report such complaints to the industry directly to get the ads removed as soon as possible.

However, at Marin, we have made a deliberate decision to not use the industry’s official complaint process, because as we demonstrated with our report in 2008, it’s a failure and a charade.

Instead, when it’s a spirits ad that I think is in violation of the voluntary code, I will send an email directly to Lynne Omlie, who handles such matters for the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS), the national trade group for the spirits industry.

Recently, we received an email (with the above photo) from a concerned mother about a huge Jose Cuervo ad on the side of a building in Seattle, right across the street from her son’s middle school. (The industry’s voluntary, self-regulation guidelines say that such ads must be at least 500 feet from a school, so this was a clear violation.)

I quickly forwarded the message to Lynne Omlie of DISCUS and copied Janet Evans, the attorney at the Federal Trade Commission who oversees alcohol advertising.

The good news is that the ad came down the very next day. According to this letter of apology, the ad placement was the result of an “oversight” by the billboard company, which, although it had conducted a survey of the area, somehow missed this middle school. OK, mistakes happen, problem solved.

But it didn’t stop there.

Instead of just taking care of the matter and apologizing for the blatant error, Lynne Omlie went out of her way to tell us that this complaint would be recorded as part of the official process, despite my requests that she not do so.

Why does this matter? Because now DISCUS gets to celebrate this incident as a wonderful “victory” of how well the complaint process is working. We complained, they took swift action, and so this must mean the system works, right? Wrong.

How long was the ad up? Who knows? How many other ads are out there also in violation of the 500 foot rule, all over the nation? Who knows? No one studies this in any regular or scientific manner, and yet, DISCUS gets to claim the system works. Here is what Lynne Omlie told our constituent who brought her complaint to us, not them:

Your complaint will be part of the Code’s next Semi-Annual Report and posted on the DISCUS website within the next few days. Your proactive action to address this advertisement will be highlighted in the placement tutorials at our October 18th-19th “Best Practices” Media Summit, attended by industry members from all sectors—DISCUS member distillers, non-member distillers, brewers and vintners, as well as their respective media placement companies and advertising agencies.

Translation? DISCUS will be using this unfortunate incident to celebrate how great their voluntary system is working. Indeed, it will become a case-study of success! They may even give themselves an award for “best practices,” they are so proud of themselves!

Here’s what I told Lynne Omlie in response via email:

Thank you Lynne, for your prompt attention to this matter. It is great to have such a swift resolution. However, I do need to reiterate my prior request to not turn this unfortunate situation to DISCUS’ advantage by publishing the complaint as a “victory” in your report.

All this does is further Marin Institute’s position that those reports are a complete charade. How can the self-regulatory system be viewed as a success when the only cases you report on are complaints like these? It is the exception, rather than the rule, to have people [like this woman] take the time and energy to contact us. Most people don’t know that’s even an option. She obviously had no idea how to complain to DISCUS or she would have done so directly.

Hardly an example of “Best Practices,” this complaint just raises the question, how many other ads are in violation that we will never even know about? Unless and until we have an independent, scientifically-sound monitoring system in place, we will never know the answer to that question. Thanks again for your speedy action. Now let’s just leave it at that.

But industry just can’t because they need to perpetuate the charade of self-regulation. Whether the issue is alcohol advertising or junk food marketing to kids, voluntary self-regulation is a failed system that only serves to further industry’s PR goals. Judging by this experience, it’s working like a charm.

A version of this post appeared originally on Marin Institute’s website.

 

Image Credit:

1.     Appetite for Profit

Snoop Dogg Targets Black Youth for BLAST, a Colt 45 Malt Liquor

In a now familiar script, Pabst Brewing Company hired the rapper Snoop Dogg to promote Blast, which Pabst describes as “a premium malt beverage with natural fruit flavors and a kick that is uniquely Colt 45.”

Blast is 12 percent alcohol by volume, more than twice most major beer brands, and is sold in 23.5-ounce cans. One can at the suggested retail price of $2.49 provides the equivalent alcohol intake of more than four 12-ounce bottles of beer. Snoop Dogg promotes Blast in a YouTube Video that manages to be offensive to women, African-Americans and young people, and in comments on Facebook and Twitter, leading a marketing campaign designed to bypass industry guidelines that restrict alcohol advertising to young people. In response, the Marin Institute, an alcohol policy and advocacy group, has launched Petition Pabst: Stop Targeting Youth, Give Snoop the Boot.

Corporate Practices in the News

In this article, we briefly describe recent health-related news on corporate practices in the alcohol, pharmaceutical, and food industries.


Alcohol

Economic crisis depresses beer sales

As the economy stagnates, the beer industry worries about falling beer sales. “They’re the worst trends we’ve ever seen,” said Benj Steinman, President of Beer Marketer’s Insights, who spoke in October at the National Beer Wholesalers Association Convention in Chicago. Steinman blamed the drop on the high jobless rates among young adult male blue-collar workers—the industry’s traditional workhorse. “If we were down another 2% next year it wouldn’t surprise me,” Harry Schuhmacher, editor of Beer Business Daily, told wholesalers. Sales of craft beers, however, continue to increase, gaining 11% so far this year as compared to last year. These trends demonstrate the deep effects the recession has on sales of alcohol, food and other products, a topic explored in a previous Corporations and Health Watch post.

Pharmaceuticals

Drug industry finds that 15-second ads don’t make the sell

To save money in a tough economy, many Big Pharma companies have shortened their direct-to-consumer television ads from 30 seconds to 15 seconds. As shown below, data compiled by Ameritest , a copy-testing firm, and Competitrack, an advertising tracking firm indicates that 15-second over-the-counter drug ads constituted 25% of drug ads in 2007, 63% last year and 65% so far this year. In the same period, Big Pharma drug makers lost market share to private label manufacturers, suggesting that shorter ads were less persuasive in winning new customers. “The companies that live and die by their advertising are stretching their budgets with 15-second ads, and frankly there’s a lot for them to learn,” said Ameritest CEO Charles Young. “It’s an awfully short form for creatives to work with. If it devolves into simply reminder advertising, you’re not building brands. You need to bring emotion and news value to those brands.”

In 2005, the drug industry spent more than $4 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising. Advertising is a tax deductible business expense and also enjoys the constitutional protection that the Supreme Court has applied to commercial speech. The rationale for such protection is that advertising helps consumers to make informed decisions. Can a 15- or 30-second ad contribute to more informed health care consumers?

Pharma spending on online advertising to reach $1 billion this year

Like the food and alcohol industries, the pharmaceutical industry is expanding its online advertising. According to a report prepared by eMarketer, online ad spending by drug companies is expected to reach $1 billion this year and keep rising through 2014. One factor slowing growth is the lack of clear guidelines for this form of advertising from the US Food and Drug Administration. A year ago, the FDA held public hearings on the topic and solicited e-mail comments. “Pharma marketers are waiting around,” said eMarketer’s Victoria Petrock, author of the report entitled DTC Pharmaceutical Marketing Online: A Slow Shift to Digital. “They are trying to test the waters but realizing that the FDA isn’t going to come down with a template or a hard-and-fast ruling. Even when that happens, there’s still going to be a process of give-and-take and experimentation.”

Food

Michelle Obama on restaurant practices

The following excerpts are from a speech Michelle Obama made in Washington, D.C. to the National Restaurant Association in September 2010:

“Together, you represent 40 percent of the nearly one million restaurants in the United States, from the biggest chains to the smallest diners. You know what Americans like to eat and what they don’t. You’ve seen how the ingredients we put in our bodies affect the way we feel and the way we feel about ourselves. And you also understand the unique role that food, and restaurants especially, play in our own lives and in the life of our nation….. And the truth is that while restaurants are offering more options and families take advantage of them more often, they aren’t always the healthiest choices…

And as America’s restaurant owners, you’re responsible for one-third of the calories our kids get on a daily basis. The choices you make determine what’s listed on the menus, what’s advertised on billboards, and what’s served on our plates.

And your decisions about how a dish is prepared, what goes into it and where is it placed on the menu, that can have a real impact on the way people eat….Together we have to do more…And we need your help to lead this effort. And today I am asking you to use that creativity to rethink the food you offer, especially dishes aimed at young people, and to help us make the healthier choice the easier choice…First, it’s important to reduce the number of empty calories that our families are consuming, calories that have no nutritional benefit whatsoever. After all, we as humans, we are programmed to crave sugary, fatty, salty foods. And as people who work to meet those needs, I know it’s tempting to respond by creating products that are sweeter, richer and saltier than ever before. But here’s the catch. See, feeding those cravings does just respond to people’s natural desires, it actually helps shape them. The more of these foods people eat, the more they’re accustomed to that taste, and after a while, those unhealthy foods become a permanent part of their eating habits.

But here’s the good news: It can work the other way around just as easily. Just as we can shape our children’s preferences for high-calorie, low-nutrient foods, with a little persistence and creativity we can also turn them on to higher quality, healthier foods.”

 

Image Credits:

  1. Grant Hutchins via Flickr
  2. Competitrack and Ameritest

The Reluctant Activist: An Interview with Robert Pezzolesi from Center for Alcohol Policy Solutions in Syracuse

What moves people to become activists concerned about business practices and health? How can ordinary citizens move from outrage to action? To answer these questions and to learn more about current efforts to change alcohol industry marketing practices, Corporations and Health Watch interviewed Robert Pezzolesi, the Founder and President of the Center for Alcohol Policy Solutions in Syracuse, New York. The interview was conducted by Marissa Anto, a CHW staff person on December 17, 2009.

CHW: You have sometimes described yourself as a “reluctant activist.” What do you mean by that?

RP: I patterned the phrase after the novel and film “The Accidental Tourist.” In November 2001, my ex-wife pointed out to me a billboard for Captain Morgan rum that was across the street from an inner city high school in a multi-ethnic, multi-racial neighborhood in Syracuse. The high school has a low graduation rate – about 36% – and is located in one of the most impoverished neighborhoods in America (http://www.unitedway-cny.org/results/initfund/index.html). The Captain Morgan ad had a scantily-clad woman and the message and iconography of the ad was “Drink this and you’ll get her.” It just shouldn’t have been so close to a high school, it was directly across from the school, maybe 100 feet away.

I hadn’t been directly involved in fighting against something like that, but I believed somebody had to do something. I sent an e-mail to the Director of Public Affairs for the mayor at the time and I got a pleasant reply but there was no committment to do anything about it. At the time I was a temp worker for a New York State agency and my supervisor was a member of the Syracuse Onondaga Drug & Alcohol Abuse Commission. She suggested I talk to the Commission about it. I did and soon after the company removed the billboard. Apparently the contract was up anyway. But a few months later, that same billboard had beer advertisements on each side.

CHW: So what did you do then?

RP: I investigated and found out that the Outdoor Advertising Association of America, the primary billboard trade group, had a self-regulatory ethical code stating that they would not place billboards advertising products illegal for minors 500 feet from schools or churches. I also found out that the primary local billboard company was routinely violating this rule all around the city. So I documented the problem, going around to measure billboards with a measuring wheel and taking photos. Also, I read up on alcohol marketing practices and current industry marketing strategies, liquor industry attempts at “cultural normalization.” After documenting the problem, I went to a few local organizations to ask them to sign on to a request to have this company abide by this code. A big key for me was contacting people in other cities and getting their input. We called ourselves the Syracuse Partnership for Responsible Outdoor Advertising, based on a similar group in San Diego. They were very helpful. About a year later the Syracuse billboard company agreed to abide by the code and, with a couple of exceptions, it has abided by it ever since. By the way, it was exactly 7 years ago today that the company agreed to abide by this standard. It was personally rewarding to see that I could make a difference.

CHW: But you didn’t stop then, did you? What made you stick with this activism?

RP: Through research I had learned about the staggering impact that alcohol abuse and dependence has on our society – the impact on public health both mortality and morbidity and public safety. My experience with alcohol marketing showed me that the alcohol industry was a big contributor to those problems. And I also learned, with regard to alcohol, research shows that downstream, individual-level prevention is not that effective in the long-term. What does seem to work are broader environmental measures such as restrictions on pricing, availability and marketing. I decided to get involved more seriously so I founded a 501(c) (3) called the Alcohol Advertising Reform Initiative (AARI) that looked at environmental prevention of alcohol across the board. By the way, we’ve since changed the name to the Center for Alcohol Policy Solutions.

In addition, I was encouraged by contact I had had with national organizations working on the issue: the Center for Science in Public Interest, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, and the Marin Institute. I wouldn’t have continued to work on those issues without their help.

CHW: Can you talk a bit more about what that organization does?

RP: When AARI began, we focused primarily on alcohol advertising and marketing. For example, in the fall of 2003 we filed a formal complaint against a campaign for Goldschläger liquor, a so-called “shooter” liquor. Syracuse seems to be a big target for campaigns of this nature because of Syracuse University and some other colleges. The campaign was actually brought to my attention by friends of mine who are social drinkers and not at all involved in public health advocacy. They asked “Have you seen those Goldschläger billboards around town? Those models look awfully young.” I get a lot of my best information from those friends. So we sent a formal complaint to DISCUS, the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, which is the industry council representing “producers and markets of America’s favorite brands of distilled spirits.”

CHW: So what happened?

RP: Diageo, the company that makes Goldschläger, is the world’s largest liquor company. DISCUS and Diageo seemed to formulate a very careful PR response, whereby the company was able to withdraw the campaign, kind of like a sports coach resigning before being fired. Their statement was along the lines of “Our Goldschläger ad doesn’t really violate anything but we’re going to take it down because we’re so intensely socially responsible.” However, after the campaign was supposed to have been terminated, I contacted people in other states and these ads still weren’t down, leading me to believe that part of the strategy for these companies is to placate local activists while continuing to run the campaign elsewhere, counting on a lack of communication. The crux of the matter is that there are no sanctions for violations, so the worst they’ll have to do is take the billboard down. Here’s a comparison: Let’s say I cheat on my taxes, I have to pay a penalty to the IRS. If the worst thing that could happen would be that someone would just have to pay what they owe anyway, then there would be a lot more tax cheats. That’s the fundamental flaw with the “self-regulatory” process.

CHW: What else did your group do?

RP: Thanks to Brad Finn of the Prevention Network in Syracuse, our nonprofit group got a small grant to get a laptop and buy some advertising data. Otherwise, I did everything as a volunteer. I did a lot of PowerPoint presentations and I would go wherever people would hear me. It was a personal passion for me, and so few people were really dealing with alcohol advertising in our area at the time. As a public health issue, alcohol often gets overlooked.

We also worked locally around awareness about alcohol advertising and violence against women. We modified a campaign from California called Dangerous Promises that the Berkley Media Studies Group worked on. [See Woodruff, K. Alcohol advertising and violence against women: A media advocacy case study. Health Education Quarterly, 1996 23(3):330-345, for more information]. I designed a presentation based on theirs and we looked at a Molson Canadian marketing campaign called the “Making Friends” campaign where they promote the beer as a facilitator of sexual activity. I connected with our local domestic violence shelter and rape crisis center, and their Executive Directors and I collaborated on a letter to the editor and tried to raise awareness. Promoting alcohol that way is extremely irresponsible considering that alcohol is the a date rape drug and it’s connected to so many health problems related to sexuality and sexually transmitted infections.

CHW: What do you think has been your biggest success since you started this advocacy work?

RP: That’s not an easy question, because most of the time prevention work has what Bernard Turnock has called an “invisible constituency.” To paraphrase him, there haven’t been a lot of state capitols who have seen candlelight demonstrations by people who have not been a victim of alcohol-related violence. But I’d say the forced withdrawal of the Goldschläger campaign was certainly our effort that got the most public attention. I’ve also been encouraged about some of the work we’re doing around GIS – Geographic Information Systems – in communities. My desire to push further in this work, from an avocation to a vocation, led me to pursue a Masters in Public Health (MPH) degree, which I just finished this past March. My MPH practicum project was looking at alcohol outlet density in the city of Syracuse using GIS. I did it to show the problems of alcohol density here and to suggest policy changes that would be beneficial to the community.

CHW: What did you find in that research?

RP: I found that some residential neighborhoods in Syracuse had unexpectedly high densities of alcohol outlets. The project was not designed to prove causation through sophisticated statistical analysis, but it did suggest that there was a relationship between the density of alcohol outlets and assault and DWI arrests. In some ways, that seems like a no-brainer.

CHW: Well a lot of the research that we do just shows common sense problems but you need it to push forward advocacy efforts, right?

RP: Exactly. The alcohol industry and their allies try very hard to frame those problems in a way that advances their economic interests. They try to cast doubt on even the most basic research. It’s similar to what the tobacco industry did with lung cancer, just trying to create enough of a doubt to freeze advocacy efforts and stop policy change.

Our GIS project has led to working with communities who are interested in using GIS as a tool to reduce alcohol problems. There are advocates in several counties in New York State who are at some stage of a GIS project—including Madison, Jefferson, St. Lawrence, Oneida, Cortland, and Franklin, among others.

CHW: Along those lines, how do you think researchers can contribute to more effective oversight of the alcohol industry?

RP: There’s a delicate balance there. A recent article by James Marks in Preventing Chronic Disease discusses the creative tension between advocacy and research. Researchers are careful to remain objective, while advocates sometimes don’t want to wait for the fifth confirming study, they want to forge ahead and improve health policy. Obviously, there are ethical standards for academic research. No matter how strong the results are, academic integrity requires careful wording and explicit acknowledgement of a study’s limitations. According to Thomas McGarity and Wendy Wagner, some researchers even avoid policy-relevant science because they dislike controversy and conflict. At the same time, Marks quotes Bill Foege as saying that public health is inherently activist. That connection between research and activism has to be reaffirmed.

Right now, in the alcohol field, there’s a good news/bad news situation. On the one hand, there has been a lot of solid, exciting research on alcohol and alcohol policy over the last several years. We have a much better understanding of what really works to reduce alcohol problems. On the other hand, there is a kind of advocacy deficit. There needs to be a lot more advocacy work, more additional energy and encouragement for advocacy, particularly as resources have been diverted from the alcohol field to other areas of public health and human services in recent years—and those resources were meager to begin with.

CHW: Could you talk about some of the strategies that the alcohol industry uses to promote youth drinking?

RP: Contrary to their claims that they have an interest in preventing underage drinking, the prime movers in the alcohol industry want youth consumption to be as high as reasonably possible. Currently, the underage market accounts for between 10 and 20% of consumption. [For more discussion, see The More Things Change: Examining Alcohol Industry Issues Management Strategies.] While alcohol companies claim they do not want those profits, if the industry lost between 10 and 20% of sales, they would be in dire straits. A friend of mine who’s an aerospace engineer pointed out to me that there have been airlines that have gone under because they lost 10% of their fares. So their current business model requires those youth sales. Moreover, they know that they have to cement brand identity fairly young. The prime example of a brand that has been successful at this is Budweiser, they’re very good at putting their logo everywhere. One of the ways they do that is through sport sponsorship and sports signage. Young men, especially, watch a lot of televised sporting events and thus are constantly exposed to those marketing messages. I would challenge anyone to turn on ESPN at any hour of the day—even in the morning—and see if a half-hour passes without seeing an advertisement or logo for a product from Anheuser-Busch InBev or MillerCoors. It’s no wonder that market research organizations and other studies have found disturbing levels of brand awareness for Budweiser, Bud Light, and among teenagers and even elementary school-aged children.

I also believe that their frequent use of animals in their advertisements—cute animals, funny animals—have a particular appeal to young people. The industry and their allies maintain, “Adults like them too.” Well, there are adults who like everything—after all, there are adults that collect Hello Kitty merchandise. The issue is whether or not the advertising has a disproportionate appeal to youth. Kids marketing guru Dan Acuff points out that children have a very special relationship with animals, with animals making up to 90% of the content of the dreams of young children.

If the alcohol industry genuinely worked to de-market to children and youth—keeping ad content limited to adult appeal and reducing media exposure to levels proposed by David Jernigan at CAMY—they could significantly reduce levels of underage drinking, I believe. But the question goes beyond acts of omission to those of commission – whether the marketing to youth been intentional. A lot of evidence seems to point to the fact that it has. For example, the youth appeal of the Captain Morgan brand seems to be too strong to be accidental. And it’s that lifestyle advertising—where you see attractive people having a great time without any hint of negative consequences—that propelled beer to its status and that the distilled spirits sector is working hard to emulate.

CHW: I was riding the subway in New York, and I saw the Remy Martin cognac ads showing all these attractive people connected by chains around their neck and the ad just says “Things are getting interesting” and kids are riding the subways.

RP: That’s a good example. It’s really inappropriate for public transportation systems to have alcohol advertising. The Marin Institute has done a great job of bringing attention to that issue. They had success in removing it from the Bay Area, and there’s been movement on the issue in Boston. Our elected officials in New York need to be made aware of the disconnect between making pronouncements about the evils of underage drinking and then turning around and exposing kids to Corona ads on their way to school. [See an earlier CHW report on a campaign to rid NYC subways of alcohol ads.]

CHW: That leads into my next question, how do you think alcohol advertising encourages irresponsible drinking patterns?

RP: Jean Kilbourne has done excellent analysis of that issue. She suggests that alcohol companies understand the minds of problem drinkers better than many treatment providers. For example, in some beer advertisements, the wife or partner is interested in some type of romantic activity and the man has no interest until she says his favorite brand of beer is available, and then, all of a sudden, he’s interested. These ads feed into an alcoholic mindset that sees the beverage as the be-all and end-all—where the drinker is literally willing to jump off a plane to get the Bud Light. Or sometimes the ads show people drinking in isolation, for stress relief. We have a series of ads for a regional beer called Saranac that show a beautiful bucolic scene on a lake with the text “Unwind.” That sounds perfectly innocent. Except when one considers that if somebody has to have that alcohol to unwind, they’re really advocating alcohol as stress reduction – which is problematic alcohol use. Does that mean everybody who has a beer to unwind is drinking in an irresponsible way? No, of course not. But when you bring it in as a deliberate advertising point you run the danger of promoting alcohol to relieve stress. I would call that irresponsible advertising. Another ad for a bourbon brand shows a scene from a saloon in the Old West with the tag line “When the bottle was the glass.” If we were to make a formal complaint, the company would likely claim that it’s a historical reference.

But if you gauged the actual perceptions of the people in the target psychographic who read that ad—as opposed to the claimed intentions of the alcohol company—they would perceive it as glorifying that kind of hypermasculine excess. “Drink this bourbon because it’s what hard drinkin’ menfolk drink! It will make you a latter-day cowboy!”

That is why the only accurate way to determine the impact of a marketing campaign is to determine the perceptions of the target market. Anyone can claim innocent intentions.

Perfect_timing

CHW: In your opinion, what is the top alcohol control issue that advocates like you should focus on in the coming year.

RP: I’ll talk about two different issues: an overarching national issue that reaches across the federal, state, and local levels, and a concern about New York State.

The national issue is that of alcohol taxes. George Hacker of the Center for Science in the Public Interest has rightly called increases in alcohol taxes the gold standard of evidenced-based alcohol control policy. The body of research shows that increasing alcohol taxes limits alcohol abuse, especially among young people who are particularly price-sensitive. Alex Wagenaar at the University of Florida has been a leader in assembling that evidence, and the book Paying The Tab: The Costs and Benefits of Alcohol Control by Philip J. Cook does an excellent job of presenting what he calls the “unique advantages” of alcohol taxes as an alcohol control measure.

When you combine all that evidence with state governments’ “revenue hunger” precipitated by the economic crisis, increased alcohol taxes should be on the top of the public policy agenda. But that hasn’t been the case.

CHW: Why is that?

RP: A lot of it is due to the influence of the alcohol industry. Earlier this year, there was a bill proposed in the House of Representatives to roll back the beer tax from what it’s been since 1991 (H.R. 836). Now, bear in mind, this is a tax that hasn’t been adjusted for inflation, so it’s already historically low—about one-fourth the value it was fifty years ago. Even so, 242 members of Congress signed on as co-sponsors of the beer tax rollback, which really shows the enormous power the alcohol industry has in Washington. [In 2008, according to Open Secrets, the beer, wine and liquor industries made political contributions totaling $14,122,519, the highest level since reporting began in 1990.]

CHW: You also mentioned a New York State concern?

RP: Yes, many of my colleagues – most notably my colleagues with the Council on Addictions of New York State (CANYS) – are concerned about recent attempts to deregulate our state alcohol control system. There have been several bills proposed in our state legislature that appear to have been written by alcohol industry lobbyists. One bill (A08026) actually proposes that wine be excluded from the state sales tax on wine, arguing that because current guidelines exclude products that are over 70% fruit juice, and is a “beverage made wholly from fruit juice.” It would be laughable if it were not for the fact that an elected official actually. Another bill (S6184) seeks to shift the mission of the New York State Alcohol Beverage Control law from one of public safety and public health to one where the state would “promote economic development and job opportunities by promoting the expansion and profitability of the beer, wine and liquor production industries in this state.” It’s difficult to imagine a proposal that is more radical or more wrong-headed.

Another New York State issue that has been bubbling over is the proposed expansion of wine and/or liquor into grocery and drug stores. The proponents of that expansion have framed it as an economic issue of grocery stores versus liquor stores, conveniently sidestepping the public health implications. In reality, research has shown that states that offer wine and/or liquor in more places have higher levels of alcohol consumption, and thus more alcohol problems. In addition, big grocery stores in New York State have pushed the local economic benefits, as if the primary effect will be greater availability of boutique New York State wines in their gourmet section. But the proposal would result in corner stores, conveniences stores and bodegas being allowed to sell fortified wines like Thunderbird and Mad Dog, which are street drinks that are designed for abuse. To make these products available so widely would really be a nightmare for public health and public safety.

Our leaders need to realize that alcohol—in the words of the World Health Organization—is “no ordinary commodity”. Or, as alcohol policy consultant Pam Erickson has put it, we can’t sell alcohol like tires and mayonnaise.

CHW: You mentioned the alcohol tax, what are some other alcohol control measures that have reduced harm associated with drinking in the past few decades?

RP: The reraising of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age, putting it back to 21 after it had been lowered to 18 or 19 in several states—has been shown to have a number of positive public health effects.

Also, the lowering of the Blood Alcohol Content standards for driving to .08 grams of alcohol per 100 grams of individual’s blood has been unquestionably positive.

CHW: How would you try to persuade those who aren’t involved in public health or substance abuse issues that alcohol control policies are worth while, How do you convince the general public that alcohol control policies are a critically important issue?

RP: Sometimes it’s a tough sell now, for several reasons. Most Americans accept that tobacco is a threat to public health, and that we should be moving toward a tobacco-free society. In addition, with all the research and the exposure of the tobacco industry after the Master Settlement Agreement, it’s been relatively easy to portray the tobacco industry as largely irresponsible. There’s a different reality and a different history with alcohol. Most people outside of the field really don’t have a lot of information about the impact of alcohol or the tactics of the alcohol industry. And the goal for alcohol control advocates is arguably more complex: reducing overall consumption, reducing high-risk drinking, reducing underage drinking, and limiting alcohol-related harms while still acknowledging the role of low-risk drinking and the possible health benefits of light consumption for individuals over the age of 35.

And the people in the alcohol industry and their allies and symbionts have used public relations techniques effectively to polarize that debate. They’ve done this pretty explicitly—painting anyone who wants to implement effective alcohol control policy as a “Neo-prohibitionist,” tied to a cartoonish popular understanding of Prohibition. So it’s the false dichotomy with Prohibition on one side and laissez-faire and “self-regulation” on the other.

As a result, most of our societal efforts are still focused on education and reactive punitive approaches. It’s going to take sustained advocacy to help people understanding the public health research of the last 30 years, especially the relationship between general availability and alcohol problems. We need to disseminate the research in ways that people can relate to. It’s really basic economics. If you make something more available, reducing the opportunity cost, the more you’ll get of it.

CHW: What about educating the public about the cost burden associated with the misuse of alcohol and greater per capita consumption like Fetal alcohol syndrome, domestic violence and drunk driving. I know with drunk driving you have organizations like MADD but it seems like there isn’t a cohesive manner going about this kind of advocacy.

RP: Yeah, getting folks to communicate across these silos is one crucial element. A broad, national public health campaign – whether from a private public health organization or the Office of National Drug Control Policy—would also be beneficial. It’s a matter of finding the political will.

Alcohol is the third leading cause of mortality and it’s extremely costly to society, because many its victims are often young, resulting in considerable DALYs [Disability Life Years].

As Lori Dorfman and her colleagues at the Berkley Media Studies Group have pointed out, changing hearts and minds about these issues is largely about media advocacy and framing. When an alcohol-related tragedy affects our community, how do we frame it?

CHW: Can you give me an example?

RP: We had a tragic case in the Syracuse area a few years ago, where an underage drinker drove under the influence and crashed, killing her best friend who was a passenger in her car. At this young lady’s funeral, her young friends put bottles of Captain Morgan and Bud Light on her tombstone because those were her favorite beverages. When we consider a tragedy such as this, how are we going to frame the problem? Are we just going to see it in terms of individuals and poor choices and not look at the environments which contributed to those poor choices? Or should we also point out that the alcohol brands placed on her tombstone are brands that have been aggressively marketed and have been shown to have youth appeal?

CHW: How can our readers learn more about alcohol control policy? How can they be better advocates, whether with their local elected officials representatives or in their community?

RP: As for resources, I’ve put together a resource list on alcohol policy at my blog.

First, I would say don’t underestimate alcohol as a problem, regardless of your personal experience with drinking. Pathological drinking is more of a burden to society than they probably suspect. For example, when I talk about the connection between alcohol and gonorrhea, people are frequently surprised. [Cohen DA, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Scribner R, Miu A, Scott M, Robinson P, Farley TA, Bluthenthal RN, Brown-Taylor D. Alcohol outlets, gonorrhea, and the Los Angeles civil unrest: a longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2006; 62(12):3062-71.] Alcohol problems are so systemic and ingrained in our society that they touch on nearly every social problem and public health issue. We in the alcohol control field need other public health practitioners to become our allies and to find ways to help each other.

Secondly, I would urge advocates not to underestimate the impact of the alcohol industry on alcohol-related problems. In some ways, the alcohol industry has been even more effective than the tobacco industry in stanching reform. They’ve picked their fights more carefully and learned from the tobacco industry’s mistakes. If they can’t beat ’em, they buy ’em, as when Anheuser-Busch hired Mike Moore, the Attorney General of Mississippi who led the Master Settlement against the tobacco industry, as a consultant. That tactic is typical of that industry’s ethical orientation.

Clearly, it’s going to take sustained, united effort to reverse these trends.

Image Credits:

1. Bulleit Bourbon Credit: schluesselbein
2. Saranac Credit: mdu2boy

The More Things Change: Examining Alcohol Industry Issues Management Strategies

Every industry carefully plans how to advance its business agenda and counter threats to profitability. What makes industries change the strategies they use to respond to public pressure to modify health damaging practices? Do announced changes in practice reflect real change or are they simply old wine in new bottles? In this report, Corporations and Health Watchanalyzes changes in alcohol industry responses to criticisms of its marketing practices.

One source for such an analysis is the documents disclosed by the tobacco industry. One of the stipulations of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement between the tobacco industry and the attorneys general of 46 states was that several million formerly confidential tobacco industry documents would be made publicly available.

1 Many of these documents also pertained to the alcohol industry (AI), since the tobacco giant Philip Morris had owned Miller Brewing Company from 1970 to 2002 and was closely involved with the Beer Institute.2 (Altria Group, Philip Morris’ parent corporation, continues to own 27% of the stock in the multinational alcohol company SABMiller.)

Earlier this year, researchers at the Curtin University of Technology in Australia sifted through the tobacco documents in order to identify alcohol industry themes, strategies, and tactics.2 They identified the following industry strategies designed to forestall regulatory action: 1) Industry-run education programs; 2) Focusing blame on individuals and groups with a “problem”, including minorities ; 3) Promoting responsible drinking; and, 4) Denying any association between advertising and consumption.

Granting the validity of their analysis, a question that arises is: Have the alcohol industry’s issues management (IM) strategies changed substantially since 2002, the last year studied by Bond and colleagues?

Source of alcohol industry profits

To understand the goals and tactics of the AI requires an understanding of the source of their profits. While the majority of Americans either do not drink or drink very little alcohol, a considerable portion of U.S. alcohol sales can be attributed to pathological and underage drinking. Greenfield and Rogers found that the top 5% of drinkers consume about 42% of the alcohol sold in the U.S.3 Moreover, about 17.5% of total consumer alcohol purchases are drunk by youth under the legal drinking age, according to Foster and colleagues.4

With that in mind, one can speak of the AI’s goal for alcohol sales to be As High As Reasonably Achievable (AHARA). This is analogous to the environmental health concept of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) for exposure to radiation and toxic chemicals.5 (pp260-261) “Reasonably achievable” for the alcohol industry means avoiding a popular or political backlash which could drastically reduce sales.

As we shall see in examining the individual IM strategies, maintaining AHARA requires a risk analysis that is stable over the long term yet nimble with regard to details.

The Four Strategies

1) Industry-run education programs

Since even relatively well-designed education and persuasion interventions are largely ineffective in achieving sustained behavior change,6, 7 it is no surprise that they remain a favored AI intervention. In fact, industry-run education programs in particular could be said to have four benefits: 1) they do not appreciably affect consumption (and thus do not cut into industry sales); 2) they draw attention and resources away from more effective interventions; 3) they offer a branding opportunity; and, 4) they create a “halo effect”, making the industry look beneficent.8

Currently, many industry-created education efforts are directed at parents. Examples include Family Talk About Drinking(Anheuser-Busch); Let’s Keep Talking (MillerCoors); Parents, You’re Not Done Yet (Century Council); and, Are You Doing Your Part? (Century Council). These efforts seek to frame underage drinking as ultimately the responsibility of parents. While, certainly, parents are an important factor in underage drinking,9 a large body of research points to the role of alcohol availability in youth drinking, including alcohol prices,10 alcohol outlet density,11 and enforcement of underage drinking laws.12

Thus, industry education programs consist primarily of amplification of half-truths in conjunction with omission of other (especially environmental) factors and minimization of the full range of risks to public health and public safety.13

2) Focusing blame on individuals with a “problem”

As Dan Beauchamp made clear in his seminal Beyond Alcoholism: Alcohol and Public Health Policy,14 the rise of the alcoholism paradigm redirected attention away from the substance of alcohol and onto the problem drinker. While this perspective did have many positive aspects,15 it also gave the alcohol industry a “free pass,” since alcohol control strategies were seen to be irrelevant, at best.16, 17

Whereas within the mainstream alcohol studies community the alcoholism paradigm has largely been superseded by the public health paradigm, the AI and its apologists continue to embrace the former because of its IM utility. A prime example of that paradigm’s focus on the “problem” individual is the so-called “hard-core drunk driver,” the favored target of the Century Council and the American Beverage Institute. The Century Council defines these individuals as

those who drive with a high BAC of 0.15 or above, who do so repeatedly as demonstrated by having more than one drunk driving arrest, and who are highly resistant to changing their behavior despite previous sanctions, treatment or education.19

Chamberlain and Solomon19 observe that a disproportionate focus on the hard-core drunk driver tends to obscure the fact that “social” drinkers who binge occasionally are responsible for about 60% of alcohol-impaired driving trips and “are at a much higher relative risk of crash per trip than frequent drinking drivers with the same BACs” (p. 274). And yet, by blaming hard core drinking drivers, proponents of these stereotypes allow mainstream “social drinkers” to separate themselves from the impaired driving issue, without ever having to critically assess their own drinking and driving habits. (p. 272)

3) Promoting responsible drinking

Even the most cursory examination of alcohol advertising today will reveal the ubiquity of the “drink responsibly” message. In fact, many brands have even incorporated the r-word into their brand identity. For example, Captain Morgan message on rum commands: “Drink Responsibly – Captain’s Orders!”.

What “responsible” drinking means exactly is left to the individual imagination, leading Smith and colleagues20 to characterize the term as “strategically ambiguous” in that the messages engender a “high degree of diversity in meanings of message content” while serving to “subtly advance both industry sales and public relations interests” (p. 1). Other researchers have also raised questions about the true impact of alcohol industry’s promotion of responsible drinking.21, 22

One of the more blatant AI attempts to take advantage of the murky nature of the “drink responsibly” meaning was a highly-publicized Anheuser-Busch telephone survey in which 94% of responding drinkers claimed that they drank “responsibly” and “in moderation”.23 Again, “responsibly” and “moderation” were conveniently left undefined. Moreover, it is a well-known marketing research axiom that survey respondents will tend to give socially desirable answers, especially in regard to questions about potentially sensitive topics like alcohol consumption.24

By contrast, if alcohol companies were sincere about promoting true responsibility, they could use their considerable marketing muscle to design campaigns similar to the 0-1-2 Domino Strategy from FACE, a national, non-profit organization that educates the public’s understanding about alcohol and its impact, or the 0013 campaign from the U.S. Air Force. While these campaigns may have their limitations, at least they are direct, specific, mnemonic, and use evidence-based guidelines.

4) Denying any association between advertising and consumption

A key element of the alcohol industry IM program—and, indeed, of any industry which knowingly harms human health—is the deliberate obfuscation of scientific knowledge.25, 26 This practice has been variously termed manufactured doubt,27denialism, and agnotology.28

With regard to the relationship between alcohol advertising and consumption, it was once a relatively easy task to deny a link, since many econometric studies found little evidence, perhaps due to methodological shortcomings.6,

The denialist task is now more difficult given the recent spate of well-designed longitudinal studies showing a significant effect of alcohol advertising and marketing on the alcohol consumption of adolescents, in particular.7

Despite this, the AI and its allies prefer to ignore the last decade of research, with industry talking points repeated by corporate-libertarian think tanks such as the Cato Institute,29 the American Enterprise Institute,30 and the Washington Legal Foundation,30 as well as related front groups such as the Statistical Assessment Service.31

Conclusion

Clearly, the AI has maintained a continuity in its IM strategies since the late 1970s, about the time the American public health community began to identify the AI as a significant factor influencing patterns of alcohol consumption.

Three of the four IM strategies identified by Bond, et al.2 (industry-run education programs; focusing blame on individuals and groups with a “problem”, including minorities ; and denying any association between advertising and consumption) tightly parallel strategies from other industries. For example, the automobile industry’s nut-behind-the-wheel defense identified by Ralph Nader in his 1965 book Unsafe At Any Speed32 was also an attempt to shift the blame to “problem” individuals.

The third strategy, to feature vague messages in advertising about responsibility, however, seems to be peculiar to the alcohol industry, although the “responsibility” meme has been increasingly adopted by the gambling industry (Griffiths, 2009).33

Countering these IM strategies and their concomitant deleterious effects on health and safety requires that public health practitioners, advocates, and activists to master two key competencies: Familiarity with the ways that the AI and its partners operate, and the research base that points toward truly effective prevention. (See Box 1 below for resources) , and Capabilityto communicate those concepts in ways that citizens can comprehend and appreciate, combined with facility with media advocacy techniques in order to effect a new social movement for the prevention of alcohol-related problems.34 See Box 2 below for resources.

BOX 1

Box 1: Resources on Alcohol Industry

American Medical Association (2004). Alcohol industry 101: Its structure & organization. Chicago: American Medical Association. Available at:http://www.alcoholpolicymd.com/pdf/AMA_Final_web_1.pdf

American Medical Association (2002) Partner or foe? The alcohol industry, youth alcohol problems, and alcohol policy strategies. Available at: http://www.alcoholpolicymd.com/pdf/foe_final.pdf

Jahiel, R. I., & Babor, T. F. (2007). Industrial epidemics, public health advocacy and the alcohol industry: lessons from other fields. Addiction, 102(9), 1335-1339.

Jernigan, D. H. (2009). The global alcohol industry: an overview. Addiction, 104(Supp 1), 6-12.

Marin Institute. http://www.marininstitute.org/site/

Stenius, K., & Babor, T. F. (2009). The alcohol industry and public interest science. Addiction, doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02688.x.

 

BOX 2

Resources on Media Advocacy

Dorfman, L., Wallack, L., & Woodruff, K. (2005). More than a message: framing public health advocacy to change corporate practices. Health Education & Behavior, 32(3), 320-336; discussion 355-362.

Freudenberg, N., Bradley, S. P., & Serrano, M. (2009). Public health campaigns to change industry practices that damage health: An analysis of 12 case studies. Health Education & Behavior, 36(2), 230-249.

Harwood, E. M., Witson, J. C., Fan, D. P., & Wagenaar, A. C. (2005). Media advocacy and underage drinking policies: A study of Louisiana news media from 1994 through 2003. Health Promotion Practice, 6(3), 246-257.

Mosher, J. F. (1999). Alcohol policy and the young adult: Establishing priorities, building partnerships, overcoming barriers. Addiction, 94(3), 357-369.

Wallack, L., & Dorfman, L. (1996). Media advocacy: a strategy for advancing policy and promoting health. Health Education Quarterly, 23(3), 293-317.

Wallack, L., Dorfman, L., Jernigan, D., & Themba, M. (19963). Media advocacy and public health: Power for prevention. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

  

Robert S. Pezzolesi, MPH is Founder and President of the Center for Alcohol Policy Solutions in Syracuse, New York and blogs at Upstreaming Alcohol Policy at http://alcoholpolicy.org

 

References

1 Healton, C. G., Haviland, M. L., & Vargyas, E. (2004). Will the master settlement agreement achieve a lasting legacy?Health Promotion & Practice, 5(3 Suppl), 12S-17S.

2 Bond, L., Daube, M., & Chikritzhs, T. (2009). Access to confidential alcohol industry documents: From ‘Big Tobacco’ to ‘Big Booze’. Australasian Medical Journal, 1(3), 1-26.

3 Greenfield, T. K., & Rogers, J. D. (1999). Who drinks most of the alcohol in the US? The policy implications. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60(1), 78-89.

4 Foster, S. E., Vaughan, R. D., Foster, W. H., & Califano, J. A. (2006). Estimate of the commercial value of underage drinking and adult abusive and dependent drinking to the alcohol industry. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160(5), 473-478.

5 Michaels, D. (2008). Doubt is their product: How industry’s assault on science threatens your health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

6 Babor, T.F., Caetano, R., Casswell, S., Edwards, G., Giesbrecht, N., Graham, K., et al. (2003). Alcohol: No ordinary commodity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

7 Anderson, P., Chisholm, D., & Fuhr, D.C. (2009). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol. Lancet, 373(9682), 2173-2174.

8 Klein, J., & Dawar, N. (2004). Corporate social responsibility and consumers’ attributions and brand evaluations in a product–harm crisis. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(3), 203-217.

9 Van der Zwaluw, C. S., Scholte, R. H. J., Vermulst, A. A., Buitelaar, J. K., Verkes, R. J., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2008). Parental problem drinking, parenting, and adolescent alcohol use. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(3), 189-200.

10 Hollingworth, W., Ebel, B. E., McCarty, C. A., Garrison, M. M., Christakis, D. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2006). Prevention of deaths from harmful drinking in the United States: The potential effects of tax increases and advertising bans on young drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(2), 300-308.

11 Truong, K. D., & Sturm, R. (2009). Alcohol environments and disparities in exposure associated with adolescent drinking in California. American Journal of Public Health, 99(2), 264-270.

12 MMWR (2004). Enhanced enforcement of laws to prevent alcohol sales to underage persons–New Hampshire, 1999-2004.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(21), 452-454.

13 Lindsay, G. B., Merrill, R. M., Owens, A., & Barleen, N. A. (2008). Parenting manuals on underage drinking: Differences between alcohol industry and non-industry publications. American Journal of Health Education, 39(3), 130-137.

14 Beauchamp, D. E. (1980). . Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

15 Roizen, R. (1991). The American discovery of alcoholism, 1933-1939 (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved on November 20, 2009, from http://www.roizen.com/ron/disshome.htm.

16 Bacon, S. (1971) The role of law in meeting problems of alcohol and drug use and abuse. In: Kiloh, L.G. & Bell, D.S. (eds) 29th International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Sydney, Australia, February, 1970 (Australia, Butterworths), pp. 162–172.

17 Room, R. (2004). Alcohol and harm reduction, then and now. Critical Public Health, 14, 329-344.

18 Century Council (n.d.). Hardcore drunk driving sourcebook. Arlington, VA: Century Council. Retrieved on November 19, 2009, from http://www.centurycouncil.org/files/materials/hdd_sourcebook1.pdf

19 Chamberlain, E. & Solomon, R. (2001). The tooth fairy, Santa Claus, and the hard core drinking driver. Injury Prevention, 7, 272–275.

20 Smith, S. W., Atkin, C. K., & Roznowski, J. (2006). Are “drink responsibly” alcohol campaigns strategically ambiguous?Health Communication, 20(1), 1-11.

21 Barry, A. E., & Goodson, P. (2009). Use (and misuse) of the responsible drinking message in public health and alcohol advertising: A review. Health Education & Behavior. doi: 10.1177/1090198109342393

22 DeJong, W., Atkin, C. K., & Wallack, L. (1992). A critical analysis of “moderation” advertising sponsored by the beer industry: Are “responsible drinking” commercials done responsibly? The Milbank Quarterly, 70(4), 661-678.

23 Harris Interactive (2008, November 12). Anheuser-Busch responsible drinking survey. Retrieved on November 23, 2009, from http://www.alcoholstats.org/mm/docs/6741.pdf.

24 Mick, D.G. (1996). Are studies of dark side variables confounded by socially desirable reporting? The case of materialism.Journal of Consumer Research, 23(2), 106-119.

25 Freudenberg, N. (2005). Public health advocacy to change corporate practices: Implications for health education practice and research. Health Education & Behavior, 32(3), 298-319.

26 Freudenberg, N., & Galea, S. (2008). The impact of corporate practices on health: Implications for health policy. Journal of Public Health Policy, 29(1), 86-104.

27 Krimsky, S. (2003). Science in the private interest: Has the lure of profits corrupted biomedical research? Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

28 Proctor, R., & Schiebinger, L. (2008). Agnotology: The making and unmaking of ignorance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

29 Basham, P. & Luik, J. (2009). Banning alcohol ads won’t cure alcoholism. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=10371.

30 Calfee, J.E. (2004). A critical look at the new litigation against alcoholic beverage advertising. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://www.aei.org/speech/20558.

31 Szalavitz, M. (2005). Alcohol and advertising. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://www.alcoholnews.org/advertising.html..

32 Nader, R. (1965). Unsafe at any speed: The designed-in dangers of the American automobile. New York: Grossman.

33 Griffiths, M. D. (2009). Minimizing harm from gambling: what is the gambling industry’s role? Addiction, 104(5), 696-697.

34 Wallack, L., Winett, L., & Nettekoven, L. (2003) Preventing alcohol-related problems: Prospects for a new social movement [PowerPoint presentation]. Alcohol Policy XIII Conference, Boston, MA, March, 14, 2003. Retrieved on November 23, 2009, from http://www2.edc.org/alcoholpolicy13/presentations/wallack.ppt.

 

Photo Credits:
1. championsdrinkresponsibly
2. aleutia
3. maistora

Selected Bibliography on Retail Practices and Health by Industry

Selected Bibliography on Retail Practices and Health in the Alcohol, Automobile, Firearms, Food and Beverage, Pharmaceutical, and Tobacco industries.

 

Alcohol Industry

  • Cohen DA, GhoshDastidar B, Scribner R, Miu A, Scott M, Robinson P, et al. Alcohol outlets, gonorrhea, and the Los Angeles civil unrest: A longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62(12):3062-3071.
  • Gruenewald PJ, Freisthler B, Remer L, Lascala EA, Treno A. Ecological models of alcohol outlets and violent assaults: Crime potentials and geospatial analysis. Addiction. 2006;101(5):666-677.
  • Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW, Treno AJ. Outlets, drinking and driving: A multilevel analysis of availability. Stud Alcoho. 2002;63(4):460-468.
  • Gruenewald PJ, Millar AB, Treno AJ, Yang Z, Ponicki WR, Roeper P. The geography of availability and driving after drinking. Addiction. 1996;91(7):967-983.
  • Kotecki JE, Fowler JB, German TC, Stephenson SL, Warnick T. Kentucky pharmacists’ opinions and practices related to the sale of cigarettes and alcohol in pharmacies. J Community Health. 2000;25(4):343-355.
  • Lapham SC, Gruenwald PJ, Remer L, Layne L. New Mexico’s 1998 driveup liquor window closure. Study I: Effect on alcohol involved crashes. Addiction. 2004;99(5):598-606.
  • Miller T, Snowden C, Birckmayer J, Hendrie D. Retail alcohol monopolies, underage drinking, and youth impaired driving deaths. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38(6):1162-1167.
  • Montgomery JM, Foley KL, Wolfson M. Enforcing the minimum drinking age: State, local and agency characteristics associated with compliance checks and Cops in Shops programs. Addiction. 2006;101(2):223-231.
  • Reynolds RI, Holder HD, Gruenewald PJ. Community prevention and alcohol retail access. Addiction. 1997;92 Suppl 2:S261-S272.
  • Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW. Alcohol availability and injury: The role of local outlet densities.  Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25(10):1467-1471.
  • Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Wood DS, Ponicki WR. The price of alcohol: A consideration of contextual factors. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30(10):1734-1742.
  • Treno AJ, Grube JW, Martin SE. Alcohol availability as a predictor of youth drinking and driving: A hierarchical analysis of survey and archival data. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27(5):835-840.

 

Automobile Industry

  • Devaraj S, Matta KF, Conlon E.  Product and Service Quality: The Antecedents of Customer Loyalty in the Automotive Industry. Production and Operations Management.  2001; 10(4): 424-439.
  • Hellinga LA, McCartt AT, Haire ER. Choice of teenagers’ vehicles and views on vehicle safety: Survey of parents of novice teenage drivers. J Safety Res.2007;38(6):707-713.
  • Joetan E, Kleiner BH. Incentive practices in the US automobile industry. Management Research News. 2004;27(7):49–62.
  • Koppel S, Charlton J, Fildes B, Fitzharris M. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process? Accid Anal Prev. 2008;40(3):994-1004.
  • Koppel S, Charlton J, Fildes B. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process for fleet vehicles? Traffic Inj Prev. 2007;8(2):130-136.
  • Van Alst JW.  Fueling Fair Practices: A Road Map to Improved Public Policy for Used Car Sales and Financing, National Consumer Law Center, (March 5, 2008), Available at http://www.nclc.org/issues/auto/content/report-fuelingfairpractices0309.pdf.

 

Firearms Industry

  • Cook, PJ, Molliconi S, Cole, TB.Regulating gun markets. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 1995;86(1):59-92.
  • Lewin NL, Vernick JS, Beilenson PL, Mair JS, Lindamood MM, Teret SP, Webster DW. The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A model application of local public health authority in preventing gun violence. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(5):762-765.
  • Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths, suicide, and homicide among 5-14 year olds. The Journal of Trauma. 2002;52(2):267-275.
  • Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2001;33:477-484.
  • Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths, suicide, and homicide among women. Journal of Urban Health. 2002; 79(1):26-38.
  • Sorenson SB, Berk RA. Handgun sales, beer sales, and youth homicide, California 1972-1993. Journal of Public Health Policy. 2001;22(2):182-197.
  • Vernick JS, Mair JS. How the law affects gun policy in the United States: Law as intervention or obstacle to prevention. J Law Med Ethics. 2002;30(4):692-704.
  • Vernick JS, Webster DW, Bulzacchelli MT, Mair JS. Regulation of firearm dealers in the United States: An analysis of state law and opportunities for improvement. J Law Med Ethics. 2006;34(4):765-775.
  • Webster DW, Vernick JS, Buzacchelli MT. Effects of a gun dealer’s change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals. The Journal of Urban Health. 2006; 83(5):778-787.
  • Webster DW, Bulzacchelli MT, Zeoli AM, Vernick JS. Effects of undercover police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals. Inj Prev. 2006;12(4):225-230.
  • Webster DW, Vernick JS, Bulzacchelli MT. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearm trafficking. J Urban Health. 2009;86(4):525-537.
  • Webster DW, Vernick JS, Hepburn LM. Relationship between licensing, registration, and other gun sales laws and the source state of crime guns. Inj Prev. 2001;7(3):184-189.
  • Wintemute GJ. Where the guns come from: The gun industry and gun commerce. The Future of Children. 2003;12(2):55-71.

 

Food and Beverage Industry

  • Altekruse SF, Yang S, Timbo BB, Angulo FJ. A multi-state survey of consumer food-handling and food-consumption practices. Am J Prev Med. 1999;16(3):216-221.
  • Angell SY, Silver LD, Goldstein GP, Johnson CM, Deitcher DR, Frieden TR, Bassett MT. Cholesterol control beyond the clinic: New York City’s trans fat restriction. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(2):129-134.
  • Austin SB, Melly SJ, Sanchez BN, Patel A, Buka S, Gortmaker SL. Clustering of fast food restaurants around schools: A novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food environments. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(9):1575-1581.
  • Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnidge E, Kelly C. The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3(3):A76.
  • Borgmeier I, Westenhoefer J. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: A randomized-controlled study. BMC Public Health. 2009;12(9):184.
  • Burton S, Creyer EH, Kees J, Huggins K. Attacking the obesity epidemic: the potential health benefits of providing nutrition information in restaurants. Am J Public Health.2006;96(9):1669-1675.
  • Cassady D, Housemann R, Dagher C. Measuring cues for healthy choices on restaurant menus: Development and testing of a measurement instrument. Am J Health Promot. 2004;18(6):444-449.
  • Creel JS, Sharkey JR, McIntosh A, Anding J, Huber JC Jr. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:395.
  • Dumanovsky T, Nonas CA, Huang CY, Silver LD, Bassett MT. What people buy from fast-food restaurants: Caloric content and menu item selection, New York City 2007. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009; 17(7):1369-1374.
  • Dwyer JJ, Macaskill LA, Uetrecht CL, Dombrow C. Eat Smart! Ontario’s Healthy Restaurant Program: Focus groups with non-participating restaurant operators. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004.;65(1):6-9.
  • Economos CD, Folta SC, Goldberg J, Hudson D, Collins J, Baker Z, Lawson E, Nelson M. A community-based restaurant initiative to increase availability of healthy menu options in Somerville, Massachusetts: Shape Up Somerville. Prev Chronic Dis. 2009.;6(3):A102
  • Fielding JE, Aguirre A, Palaiologos E. Effectiveness of altered incentives in a food safety inspection program. Prev Med. 2001;32(3):239-244.
  • Ford PB, Dzewaltowski DA. Disparities in obesity prevalence due to variation in the retail food environment: Three testable hypotheses. Nutr Rev. 2008 Apr;66(4):216-228.
  • French SA, Harnack L, Jeffery RW. Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study: Dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 2000;24(1):1353.
  • French SA. Pricing effects on food choices. J.Nutr. 2003;133(3):841S-843S.
  • French SA, Jeffery RW, Story M, Breitlow KK, Baxter JS, Hannan P, et al. Pricing and promotion effects on lowfat vending snack purchases: The CHIPS Study. Am J Public Health. 2001 ;91(1):112-117.
  • French SA, Story M, Neumark Sztainer D, Fulkerson JA, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: Associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(12):1823-1833.
  • Fried EJ, Nestle M. The growing political movement against soft drinks in schools. JAMA.2002 ;288(1):2181-2181.
  • Gerend MA. Does calorie information promote lower calorie fast food choices among college students? J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(1):84-86.
  • Glanz K, Resnicow K, Seymour J, Hoy K, Stewart H, Lyons M, Goldberg J. How major restaurant chains plan their menus: The role of profit, demand, and health. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32(5):383-388.
  • Hannan P, French SA, Story M, Fulkerson JA. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: Acceptability and sensitivity analysis. Am.J.Health Promot. 2002 ;17(1):16,ii.
  • Hanni KD, Garcia E, Ellemberg C, Winkleby M. Targeting the taqueria: Implementing healthy food options at Mexican American restaurants. Health Promot Pract. 2009;10(2 Suppl):91S-99S.
  • Harnack LJ, French SA. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 Oct 26;5:51.
  • Harnack LJ, French SA, Oakes JM, Story MT, Jeffery RW, Rydell SA. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 ;5:63.
  • Jacobson MF, Brownell KD. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health. Am J Public Health 2000;90:854-857.
  • Jetter KM, Cassady DL. Increasing fresh fruit and vegetable availability in a low-income neighborhood convenience store: A pilot study. Health Promot Pract. 2009 Feb 12. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Kim D, Kawachi I. Food taxation and pricing strategies to “thin out” the obesity epidemic.  Am. J. Prev. Med. 2006;30(5):430-437.
  • Kimathi AN, Gregoire MB, Dowling RA, Stone MK. A healthful options food station can improve satisfaction and generate gross profit in a worksite cafeteria. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(5):914-917.
  • Kuo T, Jarosz CJ, Simon P, Fielding JE. Menu labeling as a potential strategy for combating the obesity epidemic: A health impact assessment. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(9):1680-1686.
  • Kwate N O A. Fried chicken and fresh apples: Racial segregation as a fundamental cause of fast food density in black neighborhoods. Health and Place. 2008;14:32-44.
  • Kwate NO, Yau CY, Loh JM, Williams D. Inequality in obesigenic environments: Fast food density in New York City. Healthand Place. 2009;15(1):364-73
  • Lang T, Rayner G, Kaelin E. The Food Industry, Diet, Physical Activity and Health: A Review Of Reported Commitments And Practice Of 25 Of The World’s Largest Food Companies. 2006.
  • Larson NI, Story MT, Nelson MC. Neighborhood environments: Disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(1):74-81.
  • Ludwig DS, Brownell KD. Public health action amid scientific uncertainty: The case of restaurant calorie labeling regulations. JAMA. 2009;302(4):434-435.
  • Lynch RA, Elledge BL, Griffith CC, Boatright DT. A comparison of food safety knowledge among restaurant managers, by source of training and experience, in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. J Environ Health. 2003;66(2):9-14, 26.
  • Macdonald L, Cummins S, Macintyre S. Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation-substitution or concentration? Appetite. 2007l;49(1):251-254.
  • Maddock J. The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast food restaurants: State level analysis. Am J Health Promot. 2004;19(2):137-143.
  • Mashta O. UK firms sign up to display calories on menus. BMJ. 2009;338:b182.
  • Morland KB, Evenson KR. Obesity prevalence and the local food environment.  Health and Place. 2009; 15(2):491-495
  • Nielsen SJ, Siega Riz AM, Popkin BM. Trends in food locations and sources among adolescents and young adults. Prev Med. 2002;35(2):107-113.
  • O’Dougherty M, Harnack LJ, French SA, Story M, Oakes JM, Jeffery RW. Nutrition labeling and value size pricing at fast-food restaurants: A consumer perspective. Am J Health Promot. 2006;20(4):247-250.
  • Phillips ML, Elledge BL, Basara HG, Lynch RA, Boatright DT. Recurrent critical violations of the food code in retail food service establishments. J Environ Health. 2006;68(10):24-30, 55.
  • Pomeranz JL, Brownell KD. Legal and public health considerations affecting  the success, reach, and impact of menu-labeling laws. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(9):1578-1583.
  • Roberto CA, Agnew H, Brownell KD. An observational study of consumers’ accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(5):820-821.
  • Rose D, Hutchinson PL, Bodor JN, Swalm CM, Farley TA, Cohen DA, Rice JC. Neighborhood food environments and Body Mass Index: The importance of in-store contents. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(3):214-219.
  • Rydell SA, Harnack LJ, Oakes JM, Story M, Jeffery RW, French SA. Why eat at fast-food restaurants: reported reasons among frequent consumers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(12):2066-2070.
  • Sharkey JR, Horel S, Han D, Huber JC Jr. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of colonias. Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:9.
  • Song HJ, Gittelsohn J, Kim M, Suratkar S, Sharma S, Anliker J. A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods. Public Health Nutr. 2009:1-8.
  • Spencer EH, Frank E, McIntosh NF. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald’s. Am.J.Prev.Med. 2005 ;28(4):379-381.
  • Story M, Kaphingst KM, Robinson-O’Brien R, Glanz K. Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:253-72.

 

Pharmaceutical Industry

  • Brooks JM, Doucette WR, Wan S, Klepser DG. Retail pharmacy market structure and performance. Inquiry. 2008;45(1):75-88.
  • Carroll NV. Estimating the impact of Medicare part D on the profitability of independent community pharmacies. J Manag Care Pharm. 2008;14(8):768-779.
  • Fincham JE. An unfortunate and avoidable component of American pharmacy: Tobacco. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(3):57
  • Garattini L, Motterlini N, Cornago D. Prices and distribution margins of in-patent drugs in pharmacy: A comparison in seven European countries. Health Policy. 2008;85(3):305-313.
  • Gellad WF, Choudhry NK, Friedberg MW, Brookhart MA, Haas JS, Shrank WH. Variation in drug prices at pharmacies: Are prices higher in poorer areas? Health Serv Res. 2009;44(2 Pt 1):606-617.
  • Gitlin M, Wilson L. Repackaged pharmaceuticals in the California workers’ compensation system: From distribution and pricing options to physician and retail dispensing. Am J Ind Med. 2007;50(4):303-315.
  • Montoya ID, Jano E. Online pharmacies: Safety and regulatory considerations. Int J Health Serv. 2007;37(2):279-289.
  • Retail and mail copayments on the rise. Manag Care. 2009;18(6):50.
  • Rudholm N. Entry of new pharmacies in the deregulated Norwegian pharmaceuticals market– consequences for costs and availability. Health Policy.2008;87(2):258-263
  • Stafford E. Pharmacy initiatives target prescription drug costs. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2008;90(9):22.
  • Stevenson FA, Leontowitsch M, Duggan C. Over-the-counter medicines: Professional expertise and consumer discourses. Sociol Health Illn. 2008;30(6):913-928.

 

Tobacco Industry

  • Andersen BS, Begay ME, Lawson CB. Breaking the alliance: Defeating the tobacco industry’s allies and enacting youth access restrictions in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(11):1922-1928.
  • Celebucki CC, Diskin K. A longitudinal study of externally visible cigarette advertising on retail storefronts in Massachusetts before and after the Master Settlement Agreement. Tob Control. 2002;11 Suppl 2:ii47-53.
  • Chriqui JF, Ribisl KM, Wallace RM, Williams RS, O’Connor JC, el Arculli R. A comprehensive review of state laws governing Internet and other delivery sales of cigarettes in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(2):253-265.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Achabal DD, Tyebjee T. Retail trade incentives: How tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(10):1564-1566.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Clark PI, Haladjian HH. How tobacco companies ensure prime placement of their advertising and products in stores: Interviews with retailers about tobacco company incentive programmes. Tob Control. 2003;12(2):184-188.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Schleicher N, Lee RE, Halvorson S. Cigarette advertising and promotional strategies in retail outlets: results of a statewide survey in California. Tob Control. 2001;10(2):184-188.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Schleicher NC, Clark PI. Retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programs is related to increased levels of cigarette advertising and cheaper cigarette prices in stores. Prev Med. 2004;38(6):876-884.
  • Gilbertson T. Retail point-of-sale guardianship and juvenile tobacco purchases: assessing the prevention capabilities of undergraduate college students. J Drug Educ. 2007;37(1):1-30.
  • Gilpin EA, White VM, Pierce JP. How effective are tobacco industry bar and club marketing efforts in reaching young adults? Tob Control. 2005;14(3):186-192.
  • Glanz K, Sutton NM, Jacob Arriola KR. Operation storefront Hawaii: Tobacco advertising and promotion in Hawaii stores. J Health Commun. 2006;11(7):699-707.
  • Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Schleicher NC, Cowling DW, Kline RS, Fortmann SP. Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools? Prev Med. 2008;47(2):210-4.
  • Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Schleicher NC, Haladjian HH, Fortmann SP. Reaching youth at the point of sale: cigarette marketing is more prevalent in stores where adolescents shop frequently. Tob Control. 2004;13(3):315-318.
  • Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Wang Y, Fortmann SP. Association of retail tobacco marketing with adolescent smoking. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(12):2081-2083.
  • Lavack AM, Toth G. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: Examining tobacco industry documents. Tob Control. 2006;15(5):377-384.
  • Loomis BR, Farrelly MC, Mann NH. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes. Tob Control. 2006;15(6):458-463.
  • Loomis BR, Farrelly MC, Nonnemaker JM, Mann NH. Point of purchase cigarette promotions before and after the Master Settlement Agreement: exploring retail scanner data. Tob Control. 2006;15(2):140-
  • Pollay RW. More than meets the eye: on the importance of retail cigarette merchandising. Tob Control. 2007;16(4):270-274.
  • Sepe E, Ling PM, Glantz SA. Smooth moves: bar and nightclub tobacco promotions that target young adults. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(3):414-419.
  • Slater S, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M. State variation in retail promotions and advertising for Marlboro cigarettes. Tob Control. 2001;10(4):337-339.
  • Slater S, Giovino G, Chaloupka F. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(1):187-193.
  • Slater SJ, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M, Johnston LD, O’malley PM. The impact of retail cigarette marketing practices on youth smoking uptake. Arch Pediatr Adolesc. Med. 2007;161(5):440-445.
  • Slater SJ, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M, Johnston LD, O’Malley PM. The impact of retail cigarette marketing practices on youth smoking uptake. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(5):440-445.
  • Smith EA, Blackman VS, Malone RE. Death at a discount: how the tobacco industry thwarted tobacco control policies in US military commissaries. Tob Control. 2007;16(1):38-46.

 

Studies of Multiple Industries

  • Ashe M, Jernigan D, Kline R, Galaz R. Land use planning and the control of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(9):1404-1408.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Achabal DD, Tyebjee T. Retail trade incentives: how tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(10):1564-1566.
  • Freudenberg N, Galea S, Fahs M. Changing corporate practices to reduce cancer disparities. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008; 19(1):26-40.
  • Hemenway D. The public health approach to motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol, with applications to firearms policy. J Public Health Policy. 2001;22(4):381-402.
  • Kotecki JE. Sale of alcohol in pharmacies: results and implications of an empirical study. J Community Health. 2003;28(1):65-77.

Selected Bibliography on Retail Practices and Health by Industry

Selected Bibliography on Retail Practices and Health in the Alcohol, Automobile, Firearms, Food and Beverage, Pharmaceutical, and Tobacco industries.

Alcohol Industry

Cohen DA, GhoshDastidar B, Scribner R, Miu A, Scott M, Robinson P, et al. Alcohol outlets, gonorrhea, and the Los Angeles civil unrest: A longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62(12):3062-3071.

Gruenewald PJ, Freisthler B, Remer L, Lascala EA, Treno A. Ecological models of alcohol outlets and violent assaults: Crime potentials and geospatial analysis. Addiction. 2006;101(5):666-677.

Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW, Treno AJ. Outlets, drinking and driving: A multilevel analysis of availability. Stud Alcoho. 2002;63(4):460-468.

Gruenewald PJ, Millar AB, Treno AJ, Yang Z, Ponicki WR, Roeper P. The geography of availability and driving after drinking.Addiction. 1996;91(7):967-983.

Kotecki JE, Fowler JB, German TC, Stephenson SL, Warnick T. Kentucky pharmacists’ opinions and practices related to the sale of cigarettes and alcohol in pharmacies. J Community Health. 2000;25(4):343-355.

Lapham SC, Gruenwald PJ, Remer L, Layne L. New Mexico’s 1998 driveup liquor window closure. Study I: Effect on alcohol involved crashes. Addiction. 2004;99(5):598-606.

Miller T, Snowden C, Birckmayer J, Hendrie D. Retail alcohol monopolies, underage drinking, and youth impaired driving deaths. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38(6):1162-1167.

Montgomery JM, Foley KL, Wolfson M. Enforcing the minimum drinking age: State, local and agency characteristics associated with compliance checks and Cops in Shops programs. Addiction. 2006;101(2):223-231.

Reynolds RI, Holder HD, Gruenewald PJ. Community prevention and alcohol retail access. Addiction. 1997;92 Suppl 2:S261-S272.

Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW. Alcohol availability and injury: The role of local outlet densities.  Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25(10):1467-1471.

Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Wood DS, Ponicki WR. The price of alcohol: A consideration of contextual factors. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30(10):1734-1742.

Treno AJ, Grube JW, Martin SE. Alcohol availability as a predictor of youth drinking and driving: A hierarchical analysis of survey and archival data. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27(5):835-840.

 

Automobile Industry

Devaraj S, Matta KF, Conlon E.  Product and Service Quality: The Antecedents of Customer Loyalty in the Automotive Industry.Production and Operations Management.  2001; 10(4): 424-439.

Hellinga LA, McCartt AT, Haire ER. Choice of teenagers’ vehicles and views on vehicle safety: Survey of parents of novice teenage drivers. J Safety Res.2007;38(6):707-713.

Joetan E, Kleiner BH. Incentive practices in the US automobile industry. Management Research News. 2004;27(7):49–62.

Koppel S, Charlton J, Fildes B, Fitzharris M. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process? Accid Anal Prev. 2008;40(3):994-1004.

Koppel S, Charlton J, Fildes B. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process for fleet vehicles?Traffic Inj Prev. 2007;8(2):130-136.

Van Alst JW.  Fueling Fair Practices: A Road Map to Improved Public Policy for Used Car Sales and Financing, National Consumer Law Center, (March 5, 2008), Available at http://www.nclc.org/issues/auto/content/report-fuelingfairpractices0309.pdf.

 

Firearms Industry

Cook, PJ, Molliconi S, Cole, TB.Regulating gun markets. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 1995;86(1):59-92.

Lewin NL, Vernick JS, Beilenson PL, Mair JS, Lindamood MM, Teret SP, Webster DW. The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A model application of local public health authority in preventing gun violence. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(5):762-765.

Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths, suicide, and homicide among 5-14 year olds. The Journal of Trauma. 2002;52(2):267-275.

Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2001;33:477-484.

Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths, suicide, and homicide among women.Journal of Urban Health. 2002; 79(1):26-38.

Sorenson SB, Berk RA. Handgun sales, beer sales, and youth homicide, California 1972-1993. Journal of Public Health Policy. 2001;22(2):182-197.

Vernick JS, Mair JS. How the law affects gun policy in the United States: Law as intervention or obstacle to prevention. J Law Med Ethics. 2002;30(4):692-704.

Vernick JS, Webster DW, Bulzacchelli MT, Mair JS. Regulation of firearm dealers in the United States: An analysis of state law and opportunities for improvement. J Law Med Ethics. 2006;34(4):765-775.

Webster DW, Vernick JS, Buzacchelli MT. Effects of a gun dealer’s change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals. The Journal of Urban Health. 2006; 83(5):778-787.

Webster DW, Bulzacchelli MT, Zeoli AM, Vernick JS. Effects of undercover police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals. Inj Prev. 2006;12(4):225-230.

Webster DW, Vernick JS, Bulzacchelli MT. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearm trafficking. J Urban Health. 2009;86(4):525-537.

Webster DW, Vernick JS, Hepburn LM. Relationship between licensing, registration, and other gun sales laws and the source state of crime guns. Inj Prev. 2001;7(3):184-189.

Wintemute GJ. Where the guns come from: The gun industry and gun commerce. The Future of Children. 2003;12(2):55-71.

 

Food and Beverage Industry

Altekruse SF, Yang S, Timbo BB, Angulo FJ. A multi-state survey of consumer food-handling and food-consumption practices.Am J Prev Med. 1999;16(3):216-221.

Angell SY, Silver LD, Goldstein GP, Johnson CM, Deitcher DR, Frieden TR, Bassett MT. Cholesterol control beyond the clinic: New York City’s trans fat restriction. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(2):129-134.

Austin SB, Melly SJ, Sanchez BN, Patel A, Buka S, Gortmaker SL. Clustering of fast food restaurants around schools: A novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food environments. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(9):1575-1581.

Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnidge E, Kelly C. The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3(3):A76.

Borgmeier I, Westenhoefer J. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: A randomized-controlled study. BMC Public Health. 2009;12(9):184.

Burton S, Creyer EH, Kees J, Huggins K. Attacking the obesity epidemic: the potential health benefits of providing nutrition information in restaurants. Am J Public Health.2006;96(9):1669-1675.

Cassady D, Housemann R, Dagher C. Measuring cues for healthy choices on restaurant menus: Development and testing of a measurement instrument. Am J Health Promot. 2004;18(6):444-449.

Creel JS, Sharkey JR, McIntosh A, Anding J, Huber JC Jr. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:395.

Dumanovsky T, Nonas CA, Huang CY, Silver LD, Bassett MT. What people buy from fast-food restaurants: Caloric content and menu item selection, New York City 2007. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009; 17(7):1369-1374.

Dwyer JJ, Macaskill LA, Uetrecht CL, Dombrow C. Eat Smart! Ontario’s Healthy Restaurant Program: Focus groups with non-participating restaurant operators. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004.;65(1):6-9.

Economos CD, Folta SC, Goldberg J, Hudson D, Collins J, Baker Z, Lawson E, Nelson M. A community-based restaurant initiative to increase availability of healthy menu options in Somerville, Massachusetts: Shape Up Somerville. Prev Chronic Dis. 2009.;6(3):A102

Fielding JE, Aguirre A, Palaiologos E. Effectiveness of altered incentives in a food safety inspection program. Prev Med. 2001;32(3):239-244.

Ford PB, Dzewaltowski DA. Disparities in obesity prevalence due to variation in the retail food environment: Three testable hypotheses. Nutr Rev. 2008 Apr;66(4):216-228.

French SA, Harnack L, Jeffery RW. Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study: Dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 2000;24(1):1353.

French SA. Pricing effects on food choices. J.Nutr. 2003;133(3):841S-843S.

French SA, Jeffery RW, Story M, Breitlow KK, Baxter JS, Hannan P, et al. Pricing and promotion effects on lowfat vending snack purchases: The CHIPS Study. Am J Public Health. 2001 ;91(1):112-117.

French SA, Story M, Neumark Sztainer D, Fulkerson JA, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: Associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.2001;25(12):1823-1833.

Fried EJ, Nestle M. The growing political movement against soft drinks in schools. JAMA.2002 ;288(1):2181-2181.

Gerend MA. Does calorie information promote lower calorie fast food choices among college students? J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(1):84-86.

Glanz K, Resnicow K, Seymour J, Hoy K, Stewart H, Lyons M, Goldberg J. How major restaurant chains plan their menus: The role of profit, demand, and health. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32(5):383-388.

Hannan P, French SA, Story M, Fulkerson JA. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: Acceptability and sensitivity analysis. Am.J.Health Promot. 2002 ;17(1):16,ii.

Hanni KD, Garcia E, Ellemberg C, Winkleby M. Targeting the taqueria: Implementing healthy food options at Mexican American restaurants. Health Promot Pract. 2009;10(2 Suppl):91S-99S.

Harnack LJ, French SA. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 Oct 26;5:51.

Harnack LJ, French SA, Oakes JM, Story MT, Jeffery RW, Rydell SA. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 ;5:63.

Jacobson MF, Brownell KD. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health. Am J Public Health 2000;90:854-857.

Jetter KM, Cassady DL. Increasing fresh fruit and vegetable availability in a low-income neighborhood convenience store: A pilot study. Health Promot Pract. 2009 Feb 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Kim D, Kawachi I. Food taxation and pricing strategies to “thin out” the obesity epidemic.  Am. J. Prev. Med.2006;30(5):430-437.

Kimathi AN, Gregoire MB, Dowling RA, Stone MK. A healthful options food station can improve satisfaction and generate gross profit in a worksite cafeteria. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(5):914-917.

Kuo T, Jarosz CJ, Simon P, Fielding JE. Menu labeling as a potential strategy for combating the obesity epidemic: A health impact assessment. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(9):1680-1686.

Kwate N O A. Fried chicken and fresh apples: Racial segregation as a fundamental cause of fast food density in black neighborhoods. Health and Place. 2008;14:32-44.

Kwate NO, Yau CY, Loh JM, Williams D. Inequality in obesigenic environments: Fast food density in New York City.Healthand Place. 2009;15(1):364-73

Lang T, Rayner G, Kaelin E. The Food Industry, Diet, Physical Activity and Health: A Review Of Reported Commitments And Practice Of 25 Of The World’s Largest Food Companies. 2006.

Larson NI, Story MT, Nelson MC. Neighborhood environments: Disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(1):74-81.

Ludwig DS, Brownell KD. Public health action amid scientific uncertainty: The case of restaurant calorie labeling regulations.JAMA. 2009;302(4):434-435.

Lynch RA, Elledge BL, Griffith CC, Boatright DT. A comparison of food safety knowledge among restaurant managers, by source of training and experience, in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. J Environ Health. 2003;66(2):9-14, 26.

Macdonald L, Cummins S, Macintyre S. Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation-substitution or concentration? Appetite. 2007l;49(1):251-254.

Maddock J. The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast food restaurants: State level analysis. Am J Health Promot. 2004;19(2):137-143.

Mashta O. UK firms sign up to display calories on menus. BMJ. 2009;338:b182.

Morland KB, Evenson KR. Obesity prevalence and the local food environment.  Health and Place. 2009; 15(2):491-495

Nielsen SJ, Siega Riz AM, Popkin BM. Trends in food locations and sources among adolescents and young adults. Prev Med.2002;35(2):107-113.

O’Dougherty M, Harnack LJ, French SA, Story M, Oakes JM, Jeffery RW. Nutrition labeling and value size pricing at fast-food restaurants: A consumer perspective. Am J Health Promot. 2006;20(4):247-250.

Phillips ML, Elledge BL, Basara HG, Lynch RA, Boatright DT. Recurrent critical violations of the food code in retail food service establishments. J Environ Health. 2006;68(10):24-30, 55.

Pomeranz JL, Brownell KD. Legal and public health considerations affecting  the success, reach, and impact of menu-labeling laws. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(9):1578-1583.

Roberto CA, Agnew H, Brownell KD. An observational study of consumers’ accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(5):820-821.

Rose D, Hutchinson PL, Bodor JN, Swalm CM, Farley TA, Cohen DA, Rice JC. Neighborhood food environments and Body Mass Index: The importance of in-store contents. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(3):214-219.

Rydell SA, Harnack LJ, Oakes JM, Story M, Jeffery RW, French SA. Why eat at fast-food restaurants: reported reasons among frequent consumers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(12):2066-2070.

Sharkey JR, Horel S, Han D, Huber JC Jr. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of colonias. Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:9.

Song HJ, Gittelsohn J, Kim M, Suratkar S, Sharma S, Anliker J. A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods. Public Health Nutr. 2009:1-8.

Spencer EH, Frank E, McIntosh NF. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald’s.Am.J.Prev.Med. 2005 ;28(4):379-381.

Story M, Kaphingst KM, Robinson-O’Brien R, Glanz K. Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:253-72.

 

Pharmaceutical Industry

Brooks JM, Doucette WR, Wan S, Klepser DG. Retail pharmacy market structure and performance. Inquiry. 2008;45(1):75-88.

Carroll NV. Estimating the impact of Medicare part D on the profitability of independent community pharmacies. J Manag Care Pharm. 2008;14(8):768-779.

Fincham JE. An unfortunate and avoidable component of American pharmacy: Tobacco. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(3):57

Garattini L, Motterlini N, Cornago D. Prices and distribution margins of in-patent drugs in pharmacy: A comparison in seven European countries. Health Policy. 2008;85(3):305-313.

Gellad WF, Choudhry NK, Friedberg MW, Brookhart MA, Haas JS, Shrank WH. Variation in drug prices at pharmacies: Are prices higher in poorer areas? Health Serv Res. 2009;44(2 Pt 1):606-617.

Gitlin M, Wilson L. Repackaged pharmaceuticals in the California workers’ compensation system: From distribution and pricing options to physician and retail dispensing. Am J Ind Med. 2007;50(4):303-315.

Montoya ID, Jano E. Online pharmacies: Safety and regulatory considerations. Int J Health Serv. 2007;37(2):279-289.

Retail and mail copayments on the rise. Manag Care. 2009;18(6):50.

Rudholm N. Entry of new pharmacies in the deregulated Norwegian pharmaceuticals market– consequences for costs and availability. Health Policy.2008;87(2):258-263

Stafford E. Pharmacy initiatives target prescription drug costs. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2008;90(9):22.

Stevenson FA, Leontowitsch M, Duggan C. Over-the-counter medicines: Professional expertise and consumer discourses.Sociol Health Illn. 2008;30(6):913-928.

Tobacco Industry

Andersen BS, Begay ME, Lawson CB. Breaking the alliance: Defeating the tobacco industry’s allies and enacting youth access restrictions in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(11):1922-1928.

Celebucki CC, Diskin K. A longitudinal study of externally visible cigarette advertising on retail storefronts in Massachusetts before and after the Master Settlement Agreement. Tob Control. 2002;11 Suppl 2:ii47-53.

Chriqui JF, Ribisl KM, Wallace RM, Williams RS, O’Connor JC, el Arculli R. A comprehensive review of state laws governing Internet and other delivery sales of cigarettes in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(2):253-265.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Achabal DD, Tyebjee T. Retail trade incentives: How tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(10):1564-1566.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Clark PI, Haladjian HH. How tobacco companies ensure prime placement of their advertising and products in stores: Interviews with retailers about tobacco company incentive programmes. Tob Control. 2003;12(2):184-188.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Schleicher N, Lee RE, Halvorson S. Cigarette advertising and promotional strategies in retail outlets: results of a statewide survey in California. Tob Control. 2001;10(2):184-188.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Schleicher NC, Clark PI. Retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programs is related to increased levels of cigarette advertising and cheaper cigarette prices in stores. Prev Med. 2004;38(6):876-884.

Gilbertson T. Retail point-of-sale guardianship and juvenile tobacco purchases: assessing the prevention capabilities of undergraduate college students. J Drug Educ. 2007;37(1):1-30.

Gilpin EA, White VM, Pierce JP. How effective are tobacco industry bar and club marketing efforts in reaching young adults?Tob Control. 2005;14(3):186-192.

Glanz K, Sutton NM, Jacob Arriola KR. Operation storefront Hawaii: Tobacco advertising and promotion in Hawaii stores. J Health Commun. 2006;11(7):699-707.

Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Schleicher NC, Cowling DW, Kline RS, Fortmann SP. Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools? Prev Med. 2008;47(2):210-4.

Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Schleicher NC, Haladjian HH, Fortmann SP. Reaching youth at the point of sale: cigarette marketing is more prevalent in stores where adolescents shop frequently. Tob Control. 2004;13(3):315-318.

Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Wang Y, Fortmann SP. Association of retail tobacco marketing with adolescent smoking. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(12):2081-2083.

Lavack AM, Toth G. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: Examining tobacco industry documents. Tob Control. 2006;15(5):377-384.

Loomis BR, Farrelly MC, Mann NH. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes. Tob Control. 2006;15(6):458-463.

Loomis BR, Farrelly MC, Nonnemaker JM, Mann NH. Point of purchase cigarette promotions before and after the Master Settlement Agreement: exploring retail scanner data. Tob Control. 2006;15(2):140-

Pollay RW. More than meets the eye: on the importance of retail cigarette merchandising. Tob Control. 2007;16(4):270-274.

Sepe E, Ling PM, Glantz SA. Smooth moves: bar and nightclub tobacco promotions that target young adults. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(3):414-419.

Slater S, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M. State variation in retail promotions and advertising for Marlboro cigarettes. Tob Control. 2001;10(4):337-339.

Slater S, Giovino G, Chaloupka F. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(1):187-193.

Slater SJ, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M, Johnston LD, O’malley PM. The impact of retail cigarette marketing practices on youth smoking uptake. Arch Pediatr Adolesc. Med. 2007;161(5):440-445.

Slater SJ, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M, Johnston LD, O’Malley PM. The impact of retail cigarette marketing practices on youth smoking uptake. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(5):440-445.

Smith EA, Blackman VS, Malone RE. Death at a discount: how the tobacco industry thwarted tobacco control policies in US military commissaries. Tob Control. 2007;16(1):38-46.

 

Studies of Multiple Industries

Ashe M, Jernigan D, Kline R, Galaz R. Land use planning and the control of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(9):1404-1408.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Achabal DD, Tyebjee T. Retail trade incentives: how tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(10):1564-1566.

Freudenberg N, Galea S, Fahs M. Changing corporate practices to reduce cancer disparities. J Health Care Poor Underserved.2008; 19(1):26-40.

Hemenway D. The public health approach to motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol, with applications to firearms policy. J Public Health Policy. 2001;22(4):381-402.

Kotecki JE. Sale of alcohol in pharmacies: results and implications of an empirical study. J Community Health. 2003;28(1):65-77.