Category Archives: Alcohol

The More Things Change: Examining Alcohol Industry Issues Management Strategies

Every industry carefully plans how to advance its business agenda and counter threats to profitability. What makes industries change the strategies they use to respond to public pressure to modify health damaging practices? Do announced changes in practice reflect real change or are they simply old wine in new bottles? In this report, Corporations and Health Watchanalyzes changes in alcohol industry responses to criticisms of its marketing practices.

One source for such an analysis is the documents disclosed by the tobacco industry. One of the stipulations of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement between the tobacco industry and the attorneys general of 46 states was that several million formerly confidential tobacco industry documents would be made publicly available.

1 Many of these documents also pertained to the alcohol industry (AI), since the tobacco giant Philip Morris had owned Miller Brewing Company from 1970 to 2002 and was closely involved with the Beer Institute.2 (Altria Group, Philip Morris’ parent corporation, continues to own 27% of the stock in the multinational alcohol company SABMiller.)

Earlier this year, researchers at the Curtin University of Technology in Australia sifted through the tobacco documents in order to identify alcohol industry themes, strategies, and tactics.2 They identified the following industry strategies designed to forestall regulatory action: 1) Industry-run education programs; 2) Focusing blame on individuals and groups with a “problem”, including minorities ; 3) Promoting responsible drinking; and, 4) Denying any association between advertising and consumption.

Granting the validity of their analysis, a question that arises is: Have the alcohol industry’s issues management (IM) strategies changed substantially since 2002, the last year studied by Bond and colleagues?

Source of alcohol industry profits

To understand the goals and tactics of the AI requires an understanding of the source of their profits. While the majority of Americans either do not drink or drink very little alcohol, a considerable portion of U.S. alcohol sales can be attributed to pathological and underage drinking. Greenfield and Rogers found that the top 5% of drinkers consume about 42% of the alcohol sold in the U.S.3 Moreover, about 17.5% of total consumer alcohol purchases are drunk by youth under the legal drinking age, according to Foster and colleagues.4

With that in mind, one can speak of the AI’s goal for alcohol sales to be As High As Reasonably Achievable (AHARA). This is analogous to the environmental health concept of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) for exposure to radiation and toxic chemicals.5 (pp260-261) “Reasonably achievable” for the alcohol industry means avoiding a popular or political backlash which could drastically reduce sales.

As we shall see in examining the individual IM strategies, maintaining AHARA requires a risk analysis that is stable over the long term yet nimble with regard to details.

The Four Strategies

1) Industry-run education programs

Since even relatively well-designed education and persuasion interventions are largely ineffective in achieving sustained behavior change,6, 7 it is no surprise that they remain a favored AI intervention. In fact, industry-run education programs in particular could be said to have four benefits: 1) they do not appreciably affect consumption (and thus do not cut into industry sales); 2) they draw attention and resources away from more effective interventions; 3) they offer a branding opportunity; and, 4) they create a “halo effect”, making the industry look beneficent.8

Currently, many industry-created education efforts are directed at parents. Examples include Family Talk About Drinking(Anheuser-Busch); Let’s Keep Talking (MillerCoors); Parents, You’re Not Done Yet (Century Council); and, Are You Doing Your Part? (Century Council). These efforts seek to frame underage drinking as ultimately the responsibility of parents. While, certainly, parents are an important factor in underage drinking,9 a large body of research points to the role of alcohol availability in youth drinking, including alcohol prices,10 alcohol outlet density,11 and enforcement of underage drinking laws.12

Thus, industry education programs consist primarily of amplification of half-truths in conjunction with omission of other (especially environmental) factors and minimization of the full range of risks to public health and public safety.13

2) Focusing blame on individuals with a “problem”

As Dan Beauchamp made clear in his seminal Beyond Alcoholism: Alcohol and Public Health Policy,14 the rise of the alcoholism paradigm redirected attention away from the substance of alcohol and onto the problem drinker. While this perspective did have many positive aspects,15 it also gave the alcohol industry a “free pass,” since alcohol control strategies were seen to be irrelevant, at best.16, 17

Whereas within the mainstream alcohol studies community the alcoholism paradigm has largely been superseded by the public health paradigm, the AI and its apologists continue to embrace the former because of its IM utility. A prime example of that paradigm’s focus on the “problem” individual is the so-called “hard-core drunk driver,” the favored target of the Century Council and the American Beverage Institute. The Century Council defines these individuals as

those who drive with a high BAC of 0.15 or above, who do so repeatedly as demonstrated by having more than one drunk driving arrest, and who are highly resistant to changing their behavior despite previous sanctions, treatment or education.19

Chamberlain and Solomon19 observe that a disproportionate focus on the hard-core drunk driver tends to obscure the fact that “social” drinkers who binge occasionally are responsible for about 60% of alcohol-impaired driving trips and “are at a much higher relative risk of crash per trip than frequent drinking drivers with the same BACs” (p. 274). And yet, by blaming hard core drinking drivers, proponents of these stereotypes allow mainstream “social drinkers” to separate themselves from the impaired driving issue, without ever having to critically assess their own drinking and driving habits. (p. 272)

3) Promoting responsible drinking

Even the most cursory examination of alcohol advertising today will reveal the ubiquity of the “drink responsibly” message. In fact, many brands have even incorporated the r-word into their brand identity. For example, Captain Morgan message on rum commands: “Drink Responsibly – Captain’s Orders!”.

What “responsible” drinking means exactly is left to the individual imagination, leading Smith and colleagues20 to characterize the term as “strategically ambiguous” in that the messages engender a “high degree of diversity in meanings of message content” while serving to “subtly advance both industry sales and public relations interests” (p. 1). Other researchers have also raised questions about the true impact of alcohol industry’s promotion of responsible drinking.21, 22

One of the more blatant AI attempts to take advantage of the murky nature of the “drink responsibly” meaning was a highly-publicized Anheuser-Busch telephone survey in which 94% of responding drinkers claimed that they drank “responsibly” and “in moderation”.23 Again, “responsibly” and “moderation” were conveniently left undefined. Moreover, it is a well-known marketing research axiom that survey respondents will tend to give socially desirable answers, especially in regard to questions about potentially sensitive topics like alcohol consumption.24

By contrast, if alcohol companies were sincere about promoting true responsibility, they could use their considerable marketing muscle to design campaigns similar to the 0-1-2 Domino Strategy from FACE, a national, non-profit organization that educates the public’s understanding about alcohol and its impact, or the 0013 campaign from the U.S. Air Force. While these campaigns may have their limitations, at least they are direct, specific, mnemonic, and use evidence-based guidelines.

4) Denying any association between advertising and consumption

A key element of the alcohol industry IM program—and, indeed, of any industry which knowingly harms human health—is the deliberate obfuscation of scientific knowledge.25, 26 This practice has been variously termed manufactured doubt,27denialism, and agnotology.28

With regard to the relationship between alcohol advertising and consumption, it was once a relatively easy task to deny a link, since many econometric studies found little evidence, perhaps due to methodological shortcomings.6,

The denialist task is now more difficult given the recent spate of well-designed longitudinal studies showing a significant effect of alcohol advertising and marketing on the alcohol consumption of adolescents, in particular.7

Despite this, the AI and its allies prefer to ignore the last decade of research, with industry talking points repeated by corporate-libertarian think tanks such as the Cato Institute,29 the American Enterprise Institute,30 and the Washington Legal Foundation,30 as well as related front groups such as the Statistical Assessment Service.31

Conclusion

Clearly, the AI has maintained a continuity in its IM strategies since the late 1970s, about the time the American public health community began to identify the AI as a significant factor influencing patterns of alcohol consumption.

Three of the four IM strategies identified by Bond, et al.2 (industry-run education programs; focusing blame on individuals and groups with a “problem”, including minorities ; and denying any association between advertising and consumption) tightly parallel strategies from other industries. For example, the automobile industry’s nut-behind-the-wheel defense identified by Ralph Nader in his 1965 book Unsafe At Any Speed32 was also an attempt to shift the blame to “problem” individuals.

The third strategy, to feature vague messages in advertising about responsibility, however, seems to be peculiar to the alcohol industry, although the “responsibility” meme has been increasingly adopted by the gambling industry (Griffiths, 2009).33

Countering these IM strategies and their concomitant deleterious effects on health and safety requires that public health practitioners, advocates, and activists to master two key competencies: Familiarity with the ways that the AI and its partners operate, and the research base that points toward truly effective prevention. (See Box 1 below for resources) , and Capabilityto communicate those concepts in ways that citizens can comprehend and appreciate, combined with facility with media advocacy techniques in order to effect a new social movement for the prevention of alcohol-related problems.34 See Box 2 below for resources.

BOX 1

Box 1: Resources on Alcohol Industry

American Medical Association (2004). Alcohol industry 101: Its structure & organization. Chicago: American Medical Association. Available at:http://www.alcoholpolicymd.com/pdf/AMA_Final_web_1.pdf

American Medical Association (2002) Partner or foe? The alcohol industry, youth alcohol problems, and alcohol policy strategies. Available at: http://www.alcoholpolicymd.com/pdf/foe_final.pdf

Jahiel, R. I., & Babor, T. F. (2007). Industrial epidemics, public health advocacy and the alcohol industry: lessons from other fields. Addiction, 102(9), 1335-1339.

Jernigan, D. H. (2009). The global alcohol industry: an overview. Addiction, 104(Supp 1), 6-12.

Marin Institute. http://www.marininstitute.org/site/

Stenius, K., & Babor, T. F. (2009). The alcohol industry and public interest science. Addiction, doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02688.x.

 

BOX 2

Resources on Media Advocacy

Dorfman, L., Wallack, L., & Woodruff, K. (2005). More than a message: framing public health advocacy to change corporate practices. Health Education & Behavior, 32(3), 320-336; discussion 355-362.

Freudenberg, N., Bradley, S. P., & Serrano, M. (2009). Public health campaigns to change industry practices that damage health: An analysis of 12 case studies. Health Education & Behavior, 36(2), 230-249.

Harwood, E. M., Witson, J. C., Fan, D. P., & Wagenaar, A. C. (2005). Media advocacy and underage drinking policies: A study of Louisiana news media from 1994 through 2003. Health Promotion Practice, 6(3), 246-257.

Mosher, J. F. (1999). Alcohol policy and the young adult: Establishing priorities, building partnerships, overcoming barriers. Addiction, 94(3), 357-369.

Wallack, L., & Dorfman, L. (1996). Media advocacy: a strategy for advancing policy and promoting health. Health Education Quarterly, 23(3), 293-317.

Wallack, L., Dorfman, L., Jernigan, D., & Themba, M. (19963). Media advocacy and public health: Power for prevention. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

  

Robert S. Pezzolesi, MPH is Founder and President of the Center for Alcohol Policy Solutions in Syracuse, New York and blogs at Upstreaming Alcohol Policy at http://alcoholpolicy.org

 

References

1 Healton, C. G., Haviland, M. L., & Vargyas, E. (2004). Will the master settlement agreement achieve a lasting legacy?Health Promotion & Practice, 5(3 Suppl), 12S-17S.

2 Bond, L., Daube, M., & Chikritzhs, T. (2009). Access to confidential alcohol industry documents: From ‘Big Tobacco’ to ‘Big Booze’. Australasian Medical Journal, 1(3), 1-26.

3 Greenfield, T. K., & Rogers, J. D. (1999). Who drinks most of the alcohol in the US? The policy implications. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60(1), 78-89.

4 Foster, S. E., Vaughan, R. D., Foster, W. H., & Califano, J. A. (2006). Estimate of the commercial value of underage drinking and adult abusive and dependent drinking to the alcohol industry. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160(5), 473-478.

5 Michaels, D. (2008). Doubt is their product: How industry’s assault on science threatens your health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

6 Babor, T.F., Caetano, R., Casswell, S., Edwards, G., Giesbrecht, N., Graham, K., et al. (2003). Alcohol: No ordinary commodity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

7 Anderson, P., Chisholm, D., & Fuhr, D.C. (2009). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol. Lancet, 373(9682), 2173-2174.

8 Klein, J., & Dawar, N. (2004). Corporate social responsibility and consumers’ attributions and brand evaluations in a product–harm crisis. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21(3), 203-217.

9 Van der Zwaluw, C. S., Scholte, R. H. J., Vermulst, A. A., Buitelaar, J. K., Verkes, R. J., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2008). Parental problem drinking, parenting, and adolescent alcohol use. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(3), 189-200.

10 Hollingworth, W., Ebel, B. E., McCarty, C. A., Garrison, M. M., Christakis, D. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2006). Prevention of deaths from harmful drinking in the United States: The potential effects of tax increases and advertising bans on young drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(2), 300-308.

11 Truong, K. D., & Sturm, R. (2009). Alcohol environments and disparities in exposure associated with adolescent drinking in California. American Journal of Public Health, 99(2), 264-270.

12 MMWR (2004). Enhanced enforcement of laws to prevent alcohol sales to underage persons–New Hampshire, 1999-2004.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(21), 452-454.

13 Lindsay, G. B., Merrill, R. M., Owens, A., & Barleen, N. A. (2008). Parenting manuals on underage drinking: Differences between alcohol industry and non-industry publications. American Journal of Health Education, 39(3), 130-137.

14 Beauchamp, D. E. (1980). . Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

15 Roizen, R. (1991). The American discovery of alcoholism, 1933-1939 (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved on November 20, 2009, from http://www.roizen.com/ron/disshome.htm.

16 Bacon, S. (1971) The role of law in meeting problems of alcohol and drug use and abuse. In: Kiloh, L.G. & Bell, D.S. (eds) 29th International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Sydney, Australia, February, 1970 (Australia, Butterworths), pp. 162–172.

17 Room, R. (2004). Alcohol and harm reduction, then and now. Critical Public Health, 14, 329-344.

18 Century Council (n.d.). Hardcore drunk driving sourcebook. Arlington, VA: Century Council. Retrieved on November 19, 2009, from http://www.centurycouncil.org/files/materials/hdd_sourcebook1.pdf

19 Chamberlain, E. & Solomon, R. (2001). The tooth fairy, Santa Claus, and the hard core drinking driver. Injury Prevention, 7, 272–275.

20 Smith, S. W., Atkin, C. K., & Roznowski, J. (2006). Are “drink responsibly” alcohol campaigns strategically ambiguous?Health Communication, 20(1), 1-11.

21 Barry, A. E., & Goodson, P. (2009). Use (and misuse) of the responsible drinking message in public health and alcohol advertising: A review. Health Education & Behavior. doi: 10.1177/1090198109342393

22 DeJong, W., Atkin, C. K., & Wallack, L. (1992). A critical analysis of “moderation” advertising sponsored by the beer industry: Are “responsible drinking” commercials done responsibly? The Milbank Quarterly, 70(4), 661-678.

23 Harris Interactive (2008, November 12). Anheuser-Busch responsible drinking survey. Retrieved on November 23, 2009, from http://www.alcoholstats.org/mm/docs/6741.pdf.

24 Mick, D.G. (1996). Are studies of dark side variables confounded by socially desirable reporting? The case of materialism.Journal of Consumer Research, 23(2), 106-119.

25 Freudenberg, N. (2005). Public health advocacy to change corporate practices: Implications for health education practice and research. Health Education & Behavior, 32(3), 298-319.

26 Freudenberg, N., & Galea, S. (2008). The impact of corporate practices on health: Implications for health policy. Journal of Public Health Policy, 29(1), 86-104.

27 Krimsky, S. (2003). Science in the private interest: Has the lure of profits corrupted biomedical research? Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

28 Proctor, R., & Schiebinger, L. (2008). Agnotology: The making and unmaking of ignorance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

29 Basham, P. & Luik, J. (2009). Banning alcohol ads won’t cure alcoholism. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=10371.

30 Calfee, J.E. (2004). A critical look at the new litigation against alcoholic beverage advertising. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://www.aei.org/speech/20558.

31 Szalavitz, M. (2005). Alcohol and advertising. Retrieved on November 18, 2009, from http://www.alcoholnews.org/advertising.html..

32 Nader, R. (1965). Unsafe at any speed: The designed-in dangers of the American automobile. New York: Grossman.

33 Griffiths, M. D. (2009). Minimizing harm from gambling: what is the gambling industry’s role? Addiction, 104(5), 696-697.

34 Wallack, L., Winett, L., & Nettekoven, L. (2003) Preventing alcohol-related problems: Prospects for a new social movement [PowerPoint presentation]. Alcohol Policy XIII Conference, Boston, MA, March, 14, 2003. Retrieved on November 23, 2009, from http://www2.edc.org/alcoholpolicy13/presentations/wallack.ppt.

 

Photo Credits:
1. championsdrinkresponsibly
2. aleutia
3. maistora

Selected Bibliography on Retail Practices and Health by Industry

Selected Bibliography on Retail Practices and Health in the Alcohol, Automobile, Firearms, Food and Beverage, Pharmaceutical, and Tobacco industries.

 

Alcohol Industry

  • Cohen DA, GhoshDastidar B, Scribner R, Miu A, Scott M, Robinson P, et al. Alcohol outlets, gonorrhea, and the Los Angeles civil unrest: A longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62(12):3062-3071.
  • Gruenewald PJ, Freisthler B, Remer L, Lascala EA, Treno A. Ecological models of alcohol outlets and violent assaults: Crime potentials and geospatial analysis. Addiction. 2006;101(5):666-677.
  • Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW, Treno AJ. Outlets, drinking and driving: A multilevel analysis of availability. Stud Alcoho. 2002;63(4):460-468.
  • Gruenewald PJ, Millar AB, Treno AJ, Yang Z, Ponicki WR, Roeper P. The geography of availability and driving after drinking. Addiction. 1996;91(7):967-983.
  • Kotecki JE, Fowler JB, German TC, Stephenson SL, Warnick T. Kentucky pharmacists’ opinions and practices related to the sale of cigarettes and alcohol in pharmacies. J Community Health. 2000;25(4):343-355.
  • Lapham SC, Gruenwald PJ, Remer L, Layne L. New Mexico’s 1998 driveup liquor window closure. Study I: Effect on alcohol involved crashes. Addiction. 2004;99(5):598-606.
  • Miller T, Snowden C, Birckmayer J, Hendrie D. Retail alcohol monopolies, underage drinking, and youth impaired driving deaths. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38(6):1162-1167.
  • Montgomery JM, Foley KL, Wolfson M. Enforcing the minimum drinking age: State, local and agency characteristics associated with compliance checks and Cops in Shops programs. Addiction. 2006;101(2):223-231.
  • Reynolds RI, Holder HD, Gruenewald PJ. Community prevention and alcohol retail access. Addiction. 1997;92 Suppl 2:S261-S272.
  • Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW. Alcohol availability and injury: The role of local outlet densities.  Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25(10):1467-1471.
  • Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Wood DS, Ponicki WR. The price of alcohol: A consideration of contextual factors. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30(10):1734-1742.
  • Treno AJ, Grube JW, Martin SE. Alcohol availability as a predictor of youth drinking and driving: A hierarchical analysis of survey and archival data. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27(5):835-840.

 

Automobile Industry

  • Devaraj S, Matta KF, Conlon E.  Product and Service Quality: The Antecedents of Customer Loyalty in the Automotive Industry. Production and Operations Management.  2001; 10(4): 424-439.
  • Hellinga LA, McCartt AT, Haire ER. Choice of teenagers’ vehicles and views on vehicle safety: Survey of parents of novice teenage drivers. J Safety Res.2007;38(6):707-713.
  • Joetan E, Kleiner BH. Incentive practices in the US automobile industry. Management Research News. 2004;27(7):49–62.
  • Koppel S, Charlton J, Fildes B, Fitzharris M. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process? Accid Anal Prev. 2008;40(3):994-1004.
  • Koppel S, Charlton J, Fildes B. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process for fleet vehicles? Traffic Inj Prev. 2007;8(2):130-136.
  • Van Alst JW.  Fueling Fair Practices: A Road Map to Improved Public Policy for Used Car Sales and Financing, National Consumer Law Center, (March 5, 2008), Available at http://www.nclc.org/issues/auto/content/report-fuelingfairpractices0309.pdf.

 

Firearms Industry

  • Cook, PJ, Molliconi S, Cole, TB.Regulating gun markets. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 1995;86(1):59-92.
  • Lewin NL, Vernick JS, Beilenson PL, Mair JS, Lindamood MM, Teret SP, Webster DW. The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A model application of local public health authority in preventing gun violence. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(5):762-765.
  • Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths, suicide, and homicide among 5-14 year olds. The Journal of Trauma. 2002;52(2):267-275.
  • Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2001;33:477-484.
  • Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths, suicide, and homicide among women. Journal of Urban Health. 2002; 79(1):26-38.
  • Sorenson SB, Berk RA. Handgun sales, beer sales, and youth homicide, California 1972-1993. Journal of Public Health Policy. 2001;22(2):182-197.
  • Vernick JS, Mair JS. How the law affects gun policy in the United States: Law as intervention or obstacle to prevention. J Law Med Ethics. 2002;30(4):692-704.
  • Vernick JS, Webster DW, Bulzacchelli MT, Mair JS. Regulation of firearm dealers in the United States: An analysis of state law and opportunities for improvement. J Law Med Ethics. 2006;34(4):765-775.
  • Webster DW, Vernick JS, Buzacchelli MT. Effects of a gun dealer’s change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals. The Journal of Urban Health. 2006; 83(5):778-787.
  • Webster DW, Bulzacchelli MT, Zeoli AM, Vernick JS. Effects of undercover police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals. Inj Prev. 2006;12(4):225-230.
  • Webster DW, Vernick JS, Bulzacchelli MT. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearm trafficking. J Urban Health. 2009;86(4):525-537.
  • Webster DW, Vernick JS, Hepburn LM. Relationship between licensing, registration, and other gun sales laws and the source state of crime guns. Inj Prev. 2001;7(3):184-189.
  • Wintemute GJ. Where the guns come from: The gun industry and gun commerce. The Future of Children. 2003;12(2):55-71.

 

Food and Beverage Industry

  • Altekruse SF, Yang S, Timbo BB, Angulo FJ. A multi-state survey of consumer food-handling and food-consumption practices. Am J Prev Med. 1999;16(3):216-221.
  • Angell SY, Silver LD, Goldstein GP, Johnson CM, Deitcher DR, Frieden TR, Bassett MT. Cholesterol control beyond the clinic: New York City’s trans fat restriction. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(2):129-134.
  • Austin SB, Melly SJ, Sanchez BN, Patel A, Buka S, Gortmaker SL. Clustering of fast food restaurants around schools: A novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food environments. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(9):1575-1581.
  • Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnidge E, Kelly C. The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3(3):A76.
  • Borgmeier I, Westenhoefer J. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: A randomized-controlled study. BMC Public Health. 2009;12(9):184.
  • Burton S, Creyer EH, Kees J, Huggins K. Attacking the obesity epidemic: the potential health benefits of providing nutrition information in restaurants. Am J Public Health.2006;96(9):1669-1675.
  • Cassady D, Housemann R, Dagher C. Measuring cues for healthy choices on restaurant menus: Development and testing of a measurement instrument. Am J Health Promot. 2004;18(6):444-449.
  • Creel JS, Sharkey JR, McIntosh A, Anding J, Huber JC Jr. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:395.
  • Dumanovsky T, Nonas CA, Huang CY, Silver LD, Bassett MT. What people buy from fast-food restaurants: Caloric content and menu item selection, New York City 2007. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009; 17(7):1369-1374.
  • Dwyer JJ, Macaskill LA, Uetrecht CL, Dombrow C. Eat Smart! Ontario’s Healthy Restaurant Program: Focus groups with non-participating restaurant operators. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004.;65(1):6-9.
  • Economos CD, Folta SC, Goldberg J, Hudson D, Collins J, Baker Z, Lawson E, Nelson M. A community-based restaurant initiative to increase availability of healthy menu options in Somerville, Massachusetts: Shape Up Somerville. Prev Chronic Dis. 2009.;6(3):A102
  • Fielding JE, Aguirre A, Palaiologos E. Effectiveness of altered incentives in a food safety inspection program. Prev Med. 2001;32(3):239-244.
  • Ford PB, Dzewaltowski DA. Disparities in obesity prevalence due to variation in the retail food environment: Three testable hypotheses. Nutr Rev. 2008 Apr;66(4):216-228.
  • French SA, Harnack L, Jeffery RW. Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study: Dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 2000;24(1):1353.
  • French SA. Pricing effects on food choices. J.Nutr. 2003;133(3):841S-843S.
  • French SA, Jeffery RW, Story M, Breitlow KK, Baxter JS, Hannan P, et al. Pricing and promotion effects on lowfat vending snack purchases: The CHIPS Study. Am J Public Health. 2001 ;91(1):112-117.
  • French SA, Story M, Neumark Sztainer D, Fulkerson JA, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: Associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(12):1823-1833.
  • Fried EJ, Nestle M. The growing political movement against soft drinks in schools. JAMA.2002 ;288(1):2181-2181.
  • Gerend MA. Does calorie information promote lower calorie fast food choices among college students? J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(1):84-86.
  • Glanz K, Resnicow K, Seymour J, Hoy K, Stewart H, Lyons M, Goldberg J. How major restaurant chains plan their menus: The role of profit, demand, and health. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32(5):383-388.
  • Hannan P, French SA, Story M, Fulkerson JA. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: Acceptability and sensitivity analysis. Am.J.Health Promot. 2002 ;17(1):16,ii.
  • Hanni KD, Garcia E, Ellemberg C, Winkleby M. Targeting the taqueria: Implementing healthy food options at Mexican American restaurants. Health Promot Pract. 2009;10(2 Suppl):91S-99S.
  • Harnack LJ, French SA. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 Oct 26;5:51.
  • Harnack LJ, French SA, Oakes JM, Story MT, Jeffery RW, Rydell SA. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 ;5:63.
  • Jacobson MF, Brownell KD. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health. Am J Public Health 2000;90:854-857.
  • Jetter KM, Cassady DL. Increasing fresh fruit and vegetable availability in a low-income neighborhood convenience store: A pilot study. Health Promot Pract. 2009 Feb 12. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Kim D, Kawachi I. Food taxation and pricing strategies to “thin out” the obesity epidemic.  Am. J. Prev. Med. 2006;30(5):430-437.
  • Kimathi AN, Gregoire MB, Dowling RA, Stone MK. A healthful options food station can improve satisfaction and generate gross profit in a worksite cafeteria. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(5):914-917.
  • Kuo T, Jarosz CJ, Simon P, Fielding JE. Menu labeling as a potential strategy for combating the obesity epidemic: A health impact assessment. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(9):1680-1686.
  • Kwate N O A. Fried chicken and fresh apples: Racial segregation as a fundamental cause of fast food density in black neighborhoods. Health and Place. 2008;14:32-44.
  • Kwate NO, Yau CY, Loh JM, Williams D. Inequality in obesigenic environments: Fast food density in New York City. Healthand Place. 2009;15(1):364-73
  • Lang T, Rayner G, Kaelin E. The Food Industry, Diet, Physical Activity and Health: A Review Of Reported Commitments And Practice Of 25 Of The World’s Largest Food Companies. 2006.
  • Larson NI, Story MT, Nelson MC. Neighborhood environments: Disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(1):74-81.
  • Ludwig DS, Brownell KD. Public health action amid scientific uncertainty: The case of restaurant calorie labeling regulations. JAMA. 2009;302(4):434-435.
  • Lynch RA, Elledge BL, Griffith CC, Boatright DT. A comparison of food safety knowledge among restaurant managers, by source of training and experience, in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. J Environ Health. 2003;66(2):9-14, 26.
  • Macdonald L, Cummins S, Macintyre S. Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation-substitution or concentration? Appetite. 2007l;49(1):251-254.
  • Maddock J. The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast food restaurants: State level analysis. Am J Health Promot. 2004;19(2):137-143.
  • Mashta O. UK firms sign up to display calories on menus. BMJ. 2009;338:b182.
  • Morland KB, Evenson KR. Obesity prevalence and the local food environment.  Health and Place. 2009; 15(2):491-495
  • Nielsen SJ, Siega Riz AM, Popkin BM. Trends in food locations and sources among adolescents and young adults. Prev Med. 2002;35(2):107-113.
  • O’Dougherty M, Harnack LJ, French SA, Story M, Oakes JM, Jeffery RW. Nutrition labeling and value size pricing at fast-food restaurants: A consumer perspective. Am J Health Promot. 2006;20(4):247-250.
  • Phillips ML, Elledge BL, Basara HG, Lynch RA, Boatright DT. Recurrent critical violations of the food code in retail food service establishments. J Environ Health. 2006;68(10):24-30, 55.
  • Pomeranz JL, Brownell KD. Legal and public health considerations affecting  the success, reach, and impact of menu-labeling laws. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(9):1578-1583.
  • Roberto CA, Agnew H, Brownell KD. An observational study of consumers’ accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(5):820-821.
  • Rose D, Hutchinson PL, Bodor JN, Swalm CM, Farley TA, Cohen DA, Rice JC. Neighborhood food environments and Body Mass Index: The importance of in-store contents. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(3):214-219.
  • Rydell SA, Harnack LJ, Oakes JM, Story M, Jeffery RW, French SA. Why eat at fast-food restaurants: reported reasons among frequent consumers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(12):2066-2070.
  • Sharkey JR, Horel S, Han D, Huber JC Jr. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of colonias. Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:9.
  • Song HJ, Gittelsohn J, Kim M, Suratkar S, Sharma S, Anliker J. A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods. Public Health Nutr. 2009:1-8.
  • Spencer EH, Frank E, McIntosh NF. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald’s. Am.J.Prev.Med. 2005 ;28(4):379-381.
  • Story M, Kaphingst KM, Robinson-O’Brien R, Glanz K. Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:253-72.

 

Pharmaceutical Industry

  • Brooks JM, Doucette WR, Wan S, Klepser DG. Retail pharmacy market structure and performance. Inquiry. 2008;45(1):75-88.
  • Carroll NV. Estimating the impact of Medicare part D on the profitability of independent community pharmacies. J Manag Care Pharm. 2008;14(8):768-779.
  • Fincham JE. An unfortunate and avoidable component of American pharmacy: Tobacco. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(3):57
  • Garattini L, Motterlini N, Cornago D. Prices and distribution margins of in-patent drugs in pharmacy: A comparison in seven European countries. Health Policy. 2008;85(3):305-313.
  • Gellad WF, Choudhry NK, Friedberg MW, Brookhart MA, Haas JS, Shrank WH. Variation in drug prices at pharmacies: Are prices higher in poorer areas? Health Serv Res. 2009;44(2 Pt 1):606-617.
  • Gitlin M, Wilson L. Repackaged pharmaceuticals in the California workers’ compensation system: From distribution and pricing options to physician and retail dispensing. Am J Ind Med. 2007;50(4):303-315.
  • Montoya ID, Jano E. Online pharmacies: Safety and regulatory considerations. Int J Health Serv. 2007;37(2):279-289.
  • Retail and mail copayments on the rise. Manag Care. 2009;18(6):50.
  • Rudholm N. Entry of new pharmacies in the deregulated Norwegian pharmaceuticals market– consequences for costs and availability. Health Policy.2008;87(2):258-263
  • Stafford E. Pharmacy initiatives target prescription drug costs. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2008;90(9):22.
  • Stevenson FA, Leontowitsch M, Duggan C. Over-the-counter medicines: Professional expertise and consumer discourses. Sociol Health Illn. 2008;30(6):913-928.

 

Tobacco Industry

  • Andersen BS, Begay ME, Lawson CB. Breaking the alliance: Defeating the tobacco industry’s allies and enacting youth access restrictions in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(11):1922-1928.
  • Celebucki CC, Diskin K. A longitudinal study of externally visible cigarette advertising on retail storefronts in Massachusetts before and after the Master Settlement Agreement. Tob Control. 2002;11 Suppl 2:ii47-53.
  • Chriqui JF, Ribisl KM, Wallace RM, Williams RS, O’Connor JC, el Arculli R. A comprehensive review of state laws governing Internet and other delivery sales of cigarettes in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(2):253-265.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Achabal DD, Tyebjee T. Retail trade incentives: How tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(10):1564-1566.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Clark PI, Haladjian HH. How tobacco companies ensure prime placement of their advertising and products in stores: Interviews with retailers about tobacco company incentive programmes. Tob Control. 2003;12(2):184-188.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Schleicher N, Lee RE, Halvorson S. Cigarette advertising and promotional strategies in retail outlets: results of a statewide survey in California. Tob Control. 2001;10(2):184-188.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Schleicher NC, Clark PI. Retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programs is related to increased levels of cigarette advertising and cheaper cigarette prices in stores. Prev Med. 2004;38(6):876-884.
  • Gilbertson T. Retail point-of-sale guardianship and juvenile tobacco purchases: assessing the prevention capabilities of undergraduate college students. J Drug Educ. 2007;37(1):1-30.
  • Gilpin EA, White VM, Pierce JP. How effective are tobacco industry bar and club marketing efforts in reaching young adults? Tob Control. 2005;14(3):186-192.
  • Glanz K, Sutton NM, Jacob Arriola KR. Operation storefront Hawaii: Tobacco advertising and promotion in Hawaii stores. J Health Commun. 2006;11(7):699-707.
  • Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Schleicher NC, Cowling DW, Kline RS, Fortmann SP. Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools? Prev Med. 2008;47(2):210-4.
  • Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Schleicher NC, Haladjian HH, Fortmann SP. Reaching youth at the point of sale: cigarette marketing is more prevalent in stores where adolescents shop frequently. Tob Control. 2004;13(3):315-318.
  • Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Wang Y, Fortmann SP. Association of retail tobacco marketing with adolescent smoking. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(12):2081-2083.
  • Lavack AM, Toth G. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: Examining tobacco industry documents. Tob Control. 2006;15(5):377-384.
  • Loomis BR, Farrelly MC, Mann NH. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes. Tob Control. 2006;15(6):458-463.
  • Loomis BR, Farrelly MC, Nonnemaker JM, Mann NH. Point of purchase cigarette promotions before and after the Master Settlement Agreement: exploring retail scanner data. Tob Control. 2006;15(2):140-
  • Pollay RW. More than meets the eye: on the importance of retail cigarette merchandising. Tob Control. 2007;16(4):270-274.
  • Sepe E, Ling PM, Glantz SA. Smooth moves: bar and nightclub tobacco promotions that target young adults. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(3):414-419.
  • Slater S, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M. State variation in retail promotions and advertising for Marlboro cigarettes. Tob Control. 2001;10(4):337-339.
  • Slater S, Giovino G, Chaloupka F. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(1):187-193.
  • Slater SJ, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M, Johnston LD, O’malley PM. The impact of retail cigarette marketing practices on youth smoking uptake. Arch Pediatr Adolesc. Med. 2007;161(5):440-445.
  • Slater SJ, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M, Johnston LD, O’Malley PM. The impact of retail cigarette marketing practices on youth smoking uptake. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(5):440-445.
  • Smith EA, Blackman VS, Malone RE. Death at a discount: how the tobacco industry thwarted tobacco control policies in US military commissaries. Tob Control. 2007;16(1):38-46.

 

Studies of Multiple Industries

  • Ashe M, Jernigan D, Kline R, Galaz R. Land use planning and the control of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(9):1404-1408.
  • Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Achabal DD, Tyebjee T. Retail trade incentives: how tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(10):1564-1566.
  • Freudenberg N, Galea S, Fahs M. Changing corporate practices to reduce cancer disparities. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2008; 19(1):26-40.
  • Hemenway D. The public health approach to motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol, with applications to firearms policy. J Public Health Policy. 2001;22(4):381-402.
  • Kotecki JE. Sale of alcohol in pharmacies: results and implications of an empirical study. J Community Health. 2003;28(1):65-77.

Selected Bibliography on Retail Practices and Health by Industry

Selected Bibliography on Retail Practices and Health in the Alcohol, Automobile, Firearms, Food and Beverage, Pharmaceutical, and Tobacco industries.

Alcohol Industry

Cohen DA, GhoshDastidar B, Scribner R, Miu A, Scott M, Robinson P, et al. Alcohol outlets, gonorrhea, and the Los Angeles civil unrest: A longitudinal analysis. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62(12):3062-3071.

Gruenewald PJ, Freisthler B, Remer L, Lascala EA, Treno A. Ecological models of alcohol outlets and violent assaults: Crime potentials and geospatial analysis. Addiction. 2006;101(5):666-677.

Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW, Treno AJ. Outlets, drinking and driving: A multilevel analysis of availability. Stud Alcoho. 2002;63(4):460-468.

Gruenewald PJ, Millar AB, Treno AJ, Yang Z, Ponicki WR, Roeper P. The geography of availability and driving after drinking.Addiction. 1996;91(7):967-983.

Kotecki JE, Fowler JB, German TC, Stephenson SL, Warnick T. Kentucky pharmacists’ opinions and practices related to the sale of cigarettes and alcohol in pharmacies. J Community Health. 2000;25(4):343-355.

Lapham SC, Gruenwald PJ, Remer L, Layne L. New Mexico’s 1998 driveup liquor window closure. Study I: Effect on alcohol involved crashes. Addiction. 2004;99(5):598-606.

Miller T, Snowden C, Birckmayer J, Hendrie D. Retail alcohol monopolies, underage drinking, and youth impaired driving deaths. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38(6):1162-1167.

Montgomery JM, Foley KL, Wolfson M. Enforcing the minimum drinking age: State, local and agency characteristics associated with compliance checks and Cops in Shops programs. Addiction. 2006;101(2):223-231.

Reynolds RI, Holder HD, Gruenewald PJ. Community prevention and alcohol retail access. Addiction. 1997;92 Suppl 2:S261-S272.

Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Johnson FW. Alcohol availability and injury: The role of local outlet densities.  Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25(10):1467-1471.

Treno AJ, Gruenewald PJ, Wood DS, Ponicki WR. The price of alcohol: A consideration of contextual factors. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30(10):1734-1742.

Treno AJ, Grube JW, Martin SE. Alcohol availability as a predictor of youth drinking and driving: A hierarchical analysis of survey and archival data. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27(5):835-840.

 

Automobile Industry

Devaraj S, Matta KF, Conlon E.  Product and Service Quality: The Antecedents of Customer Loyalty in the Automotive Industry.Production and Operations Management.  2001; 10(4): 424-439.

Hellinga LA, McCartt AT, Haire ER. Choice of teenagers’ vehicles and views on vehicle safety: Survey of parents of novice teenage drivers. J Safety Res.2007;38(6):707-713.

Joetan E, Kleiner BH. Incentive practices in the US automobile industry. Management Research News. 2004;27(7):49–62.

Koppel S, Charlton J, Fildes B, Fitzharris M. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process? Accid Anal Prev. 2008;40(3):994-1004.

Koppel S, Charlton J, Fildes B. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase/lease process for fleet vehicles?Traffic Inj Prev. 2007;8(2):130-136.

Van Alst JW.  Fueling Fair Practices: A Road Map to Improved Public Policy for Used Car Sales and Financing, National Consumer Law Center, (March 5, 2008), Available at http://www.nclc.org/issues/auto/content/report-fuelingfairpractices0309.pdf.

 

Firearms Industry

Cook, PJ, Molliconi S, Cole, TB.Regulating gun markets. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 1995;86(1):59-92.

Lewin NL, Vernick JS, Beilenson PL, Mair JS, Lindamood MM, Teret SP, Webster DW. The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A model application of local public health authority in preventing gun violence. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(5):762-765.

Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths, suicide, and homicide among 5-14 year olds. The Journal of Trauma. 2002;52(2):267-275.

Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2001;33:477-484.

Miller M, Azrael D, Hemenway D. Firearm availability and unintentional deaths, suicide, and homicide among women.Journal of Urban Health. 2002; 79(1):26-38.

Sorenson SB, Berk RA. Handgun sales, beer sales, and youth homicide, California 1972-1993. Journal of Public Health Policy. 2001;22(2):182-197.

Vernick JS, Mair JS. How the law affects gun policy in the United States: Law as intervention or obstacle to prevention. J Law Med Ethics. 2002;30(4):692-704.

Vernick JS, Webster DW, Bulzacchelli MT, Mair JS. Regulation of firearm dealers in the United States: An analysis of state law and opportunities for improvement. J Law Med Ethics. 2006;34(4):765-775.

Webster DW, Vernick JS, Buzacchelli MT. Effects of a gun dealer’s change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals. The Journal of Urban Health. 2006; 83(5):778-787.

Webster DW, Bulzacchelli MT, Zeoli AM, Vernick JS. Effects of undercover police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals. Inj Prev. 2006;12(4):225-230.

Webster DW, Vernick JS, Bulzacchelli MT. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearm trafficking. J Urban Health. 2009;86(4):525-537.

Webster DW, Vernick JS, Hepburn LM. Relationship between licensing, registration, and other gun sales laws and the source state of crime guns. Inj Prev. 2001;7(3):184-189.

Wintemute GJ. Where the guns come from: The gun industry and gun commerce. The Future of Children. 2003;12(2):55-71.

 

Food and Beverage Industry

Altekruse SF, Yang S, Timbo BB, Angulo FJ. A multi-state survey of consumer food-handling and food-consumption practices.Am J Prev Med. 1999;16(3):216-221.

Angell SY, Silver LD, Goldstein GP, Johnson CM, Deitcher DR, Frieden TR, Bassett MT. Cholesterol control beyond the clinic: New York City’s trans fat restriction. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(2):129-134.

Austin SB, Melly SJ, Sanchez BN, Patel A, Buka S, Gortmaker SL. Clustering of fast food restaurants around schools: A novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food environments. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(9):1575-1581.

Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnidge E, Kelly C. The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines. Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3(3):A76.

Borgmeier I, Westenhoefer J. Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: A randomized-controlled study. BMC Public Health. 2009;12(9):184.

Burton S, Creyer EH, Kees J, Huggins K. Attacking the obesity epidemic: the potential health benefits of providing nutrition information in restaurants. Am J Public Health.2006;96(9):1669-1675.

Cassady D, Housemann R, Dagher C. Measuring cues for healthy choices on restaurant menus: Development and testing of a measurement instrument. Am J Health Promot. 2004;18(6):444-449.

Creel JS, Sharkey JR, McIntosh A, Anding J, Huber JC Jr. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:395.

Dumanovsky T, Nonas CA, Huang CY, Silver LD, Bassett MT. What people buy from fast-food restaurants: Caloric content and menu item selection, New York City 2007. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009; 17(7):1369-1374.

Dwyer JJ, Macaskill LA, Uetrecht CL, Dombrow C. Eat Smart! Ontario’s Healthy Restaurant Program: Focus groups with non-participating restaurant operators. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2004.;65(1):6-9.

Economos CD, Folta SC, Goldberg J, Hudson D, Collins J, Baker Z, Lawson E, Nelson M. A community-based restaurant initiative to increase availability of healthy menu options in Somerville, Massachusetts: Shape Up Somerville. Prev Chronic Dis. 2009.;6(3):A102

Fielding JE, Aguirre A, Palaiologos E. Effectiveness of altered incentives in a food safety inspection program. Prev Med. 2001;32(3):239-244.

Ford PB, Dzewaltowski DA. Disparities in obesity prevalence due to variation in the retail food environment: Three testable hypotheses. Nutr Rev. 2008 Apr;66(4):216-228.

French SA, Harnack L, Jeffery RW. Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study: Dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders. 2000;24(1):1353.

French SA. Pricing effects on food choices. J.Nutr. 2003;133(3):841S-843S.

French SA, Jeffery RW, Story M, Breitlow KK, Baxter JS, Hannan P, et al. Pricing and promotion effects on lowfat vending snack purchases: The CHIPS Study. Am J Public Health. 2001 ;91(1):112-117.

French SA, Story M, Neumark Sztainer D, Fulkerson JA, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: Associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.2001;25(12):1823-1833.

Fried EJ, Nestle M. The growing political movement against soft drinks in schools. JAMA.2002 ;288(1):2181-2181.

Gerend MA. Does calorie information promote lower calorie fast food choices among college students? J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(1):84-86.

Glanz K, Resnicow K, Seymour J, Hoy K, Stewart H, Lyons M, Goldberg J. How major restaurant chains plan their menus: The role of profit, demand, and health. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32(5):383-388.

Hannan P, French SA, Story M, Fulkerson JA. A pricing strategy to promote sales of lower fat foods in high school cafeterias: Acceptability and sensitivity analysis. Am.J.Health Promot. 2002 ;17(1):16,ii.

Hanni KD, Garcia E, Ellemberg C, Winkleby M. Targeting the taqueria: Implementing healthy food options at Mexican American restaurants. Health Promot Pract. 2009;10(2 Suppl):91S-99S.

Harnack LJ, French SA. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 Oct 26;5:51.

Harnack LJ, French SA, Oakes JM, Story MT, Jeffery RW, Rydell SA. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008 ;5:63.

Jacobson MF, Brownell KD. Small taxes on soft drinks and snack foods to promote health. Am J Public Health 2000;90:854-857.

Jetter KM, Cassady DL. Increasing fresh fruit and vegetable availability in a low-income neighborhood convenience store: A pilot study. Health Promot Pract. 2009 Feb 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Kim D, Kawachi I. Food taxation and pricing strategies to “thin out” the obesity epidemic.  Am. J. Prev. Med.2006;30(5):430-437.

Kimathi AN, Gregoire MB, Dowling RA, Stone MK. A healthful options food station can improve satisfaction and generate gross profit in a worksite cafeteria. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109(5):914-917.

Kuo T, Jarosz CJ, Simon P, Fielding JE. Menu labeling as a potential strategy for combating the obesity epidemic: A health impact assessment. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(9):1680-1686.

Kwate N O A. Fried chicken and fresh apples: Racial segregation as a fundamental cause of fast food density in black neighborhoods. Health and Place. 2008;14:32-44.

Kwate NO, Yau CY, Loh JM, Williams D. Inequality in obesigenic environments: Fast food density in New York City.Healthand Place. 2009;15(1):364-73

Lang T, Rayner G, Kaelin E. The Food Industry, Diet, Physical Activity and Health: A Review Of Reported Commitments And Practice Of 25 Of The World’s Largest Food Companies. 2006.

Larson NI, Story MT, Nelson MC. Neighborhood environments: Disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(1):74-81.

Ludwig DS, Brownell KD. Public health action amid scientific uncertainty: The case of restaurant calorie labeling regulations.JAMA. 2009;302(4):434-435.

Lynch RA, Elledge BL, Griffith CC, Boatright DT. A comparison of food safety knowledge among restaurant managers, by source of training and experience, in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. J Environ Health. 2003;66(2):9-14, 26.

Macdonald L, Cummins S, Macintyre S. Neighbourhood fast food environment and area deprivation-substitution or concentration? Appetite. 2007l;49(1):251-254.

Maddock J. The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast food restaurants: State level analysis. Am J Health Promot. 2004;19(2):137-143.

Mashta O. UK firms sign up to display calories on menus. BMJ. 2009;338:b182.

Morland KB, Evenson KR. Obesity prevalence and the local food environment.  Health and Place. 2009; 15(2):491-495

Nielsen SJ, Siega Riz AM, Popkin BM. Trends in food locations and sources among adolescents and young adults. Prev Med.2002;35(2):107-113.

O’Dougherty M, Harnack LJ, French SA, Story M, Oakes JM, Jeffery RW. Nutrition labeling and value size pricing at fast-food restaurants: A consumer perspective. Am J Health Promot. 2006;20(4):247-250.

Phillips ML, Elledge BL, Basara HG, Lynch RA, Boatright DT. Recurrent critical violations of the food code in retail food service establishments. J Environ Health. 2006;68(10):24-30, 55.

Pomeranz JL, Brownell KD. Legal and public health considerations affecting  the success, reach, and impact of menu-labeling laws. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(9):1578-1583.

Roberto CA, Agnew H, Brownell KD. An observational study of consumers’ accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(5):820-821.

Rose D, Hutchinson PL, Bodor JN, Swalm CM, Farley TA, Cohen DA, Rice JC. Neighborhood food environments and Body Mass Index: The importance of in-store contents. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(3):214-219.

Rydell SA, Harnack LJ, Oakes JM, Story M, Jeffery RW, French SA. Why eat at fast-food restaurants: reported reasons among frequent consumers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(12):2066-2070.

Sharkey JR, Horel S, Han D, Huber JC Jr. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of colonias. Int J Health Geogr. 2009;8:9.

Song HJ, Gittelsohn J, Kim M, Suratkar S, Sharma S, Anliker J. A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods. Public Health Nutr. 2009:1-8.

Spencer EH, Frank E, McIntosh NF. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald’s.Am.J.Prev.Med. 2005 ;28(4):379-381.

Story M, Kaphingst KM, Robinson-O’Brien R, Glanz K. Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:253-72.

 

Pharmaceutical Industry

Brooks JM, Doucette WR, Wan S, Klepser DG. Retail pharmacy market structure and performance. Inquiry. 2008;45(1):75-88.

Carroll NV. Estimating the impact of Medicare part D on the profitability of independent community pharmacies. J Manag Care Pharm. 2008;14(8):768-779.

Fincham JE. An unfortunate and avoidable component of American pharmacy: Tobacco. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(3):57

Garattini L, Motterlini N, Cornago D. Prices and distribution margins of in-patent drugs in pharmacy: A comparison in seven European countries. Health Policy. 2008;85(3):305-313.

Gellad WF, Choudhry NK, Friedberg MW, Brookhart MA, Haas JS, Shrank WH. Variation in drug prices at pharmacies: Are prices higher in poorer areas? Health Serv Res. 2009;44(2 Pt 1):606-617.

Gitlin M, Wilson L. Repackaged pharmaceuticals in the California workers’ compensation system: From distribution and pricing options to physician and retail dispensing. Am J Ind Med. 2007;50(4):303-315.

Montoya ID, Jano E. Online pharmacies: Safety and regulatory considerations. Int J Health Serv. 2007;37(2):279-289.

Retail and mail copayments on the rise. Manag Care. 2009;18(6):50.

Rudholm N. Entry of new pharmacies in the deregulated Norwegian pharmaceuticals market– consequences for costs and availability. Health Policy.2008;87(2):258-263

Stafford E. Pharmacy initiatives target prescription drug costs. J Mich Dent Assoc. 2008;90(9):22.

Stevenson FA, Leontowitsch M, Duggan C. Over-the-counter medicines: Professional expertise and consumer discourses.Sociol Health Illn. 2008;30(6):913-928.

Tobacco Industry

Andersen BS, Begay ME, Lawson CB. Breaking the alliance: Defeating the tobacco industry’s allies and enacting youth access restrictions in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(11):1922-1928.

Celebucki CC, Diskin K. A longitudinal study of externally visible cigarette advertising on retail storefronts in Massachusetts before and after the Master Settlement Agreement. Tob Control. 2002;11 Suppl 2:ii47-53.

Chriqui JF, Ribisl KM, Wallace RM, Williams RS, O’Connor JC, el Arculli R. A comprehensive review of state laws governing Internet and other delivery sales of cigarettes in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(2):253-265.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Achabal DD, Tyebjee T. Retail trade incentives: How tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(10):1564-1566.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Clark PI, Haladjian HH. How tobacco companies ensure prime placement of their advertising and products in stores: Interviews with retailers about tobacco company incentive programmes. Tob Control. 2003;12(2):184-188.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Schleicher N, Lee RE, Halvorson S. Cigarette advertising and promotional strategies in retail outlets: results of a statewide survey in California. Tob Control. 2001;10(2):184-188.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Schleicher NC, Clark PI. Retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programs is related to increased levels of cigarette advertising and cheaper cigarette prices in stores. Prev Med. 2004;38(6):876-884.

Gilbertson T. Retail point-of-sale guardianship and juvenile tobacco purchases: assessing the prevention capabilities of undergraduate college students. J Drug Educ. 2007;37(1):1-30.

Gilpin EA, White VM, Pierce JP. How effective are tobacco industry bar and club marketing efforts in reaching young adults?Tob Control. 2005;14(3):186-192.

Glanz K, Sutton NM, Jacob Arriola KR. Operation storefront Hawaii: Tobacco advertising and promotion in Hawaii stores. J Health Commun. 2006;11(7):699-707.

Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Schleicher NC, Cowling DW, Kline RS, Fortmann SP. Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools? Prev Med. 2008;47(2):210-4.

Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Schleicher NC, Haladjian HH, Fortmann SP. Reaching youth at the point of sale: cigarette marketing is more prevalent in stores where adolescents shop frequently. Tob Control. 2004;13(3):315-318.

Henriksen L, Feighery EC, Wang Y, Fortmann SP. Association of retail tobacco marketing with adolescent smoking. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(12):2081-2083.

Lavack AM, Toth G. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: Examining tobacco industry documents. Tob Control. 2006;15(5):377-384.

Loomis BR, Farrelly MC, Mann NH. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes. Tob Control. 2006;15(6):458-463.

Loomis BR, Farrelly MC, Nonnemaker JM, Mann NH. Point of purchase cigarette promotions before and after the Master Settlement Agreement: exploring retail scanner data. Tob Control. 2006;15(2):140-

Pollay RW. More than meets the eye: on the importance of retail cigarette merchandising. Tob Control. 2007;16(4):270-274.

Sepe E, Ling PM, Glantz SA. Smooth moves: bar and nightclub tobacco promotions that target young adults. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(3):414-419.

Slater S, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M. State variation in retail promotions and advertising for Marlboro cigarettes. Tob Control. 2001;10(4):337-339.

Slater S, Giovino G, Chaloupka F. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(1):187-193.

Slater SJ, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M, Johnston LD, O’malley PM. The impact of retail cigarette marketing practices on youth smoking uptake. Arch Pediatr Adolesc. Med. 2007;161(5):440-445.

Slater SJ, Chaloupka FJ, Wakefield M, Johnston LD, O’Malley PM. The impact of retail cigarette marketing practices on youth smoking uptake. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(5):440-445.

Smith EA, Blackman VS, Malone RE. Death at a discount: how the tobacco industry thwarted tobacco control policies in US military commissaries. Tob Control. 2007;16(1):38-46.

 

Studies of Multiple Industries

Ashe M, Jernigan D, Kline R, Galaz R. Land use planning and the control of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food restaurants. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(9):1404-1408.

Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Achabal DD, Tyebjee T. Retail trade incentives: how tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(10):1564-1566.

Freudenberg N, Galea S, Fahs M. Changing corporate practices to reduce cancer disparities. J Health Care Poor Underserved.2008; 19(1):26-40.

Hemenway D. The public health approach to motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol, with applications to firearms policy. J Public Health Policy. 2001;22(4):381-402.

Kotecki JE. Sale of alcohol in pharmacies: results and implications of an empirical study. J Community Health. 2003;28(1):65-77.

 
 

Marin Institute Releases New Alcohol Tax Calculator Tool

Read about and link to the new tool developed by the Marin Institute designed to assist states in raising revenue through alcohol taxation.

Online Feature Helps States Charge for Harm to Raise Revenue

Marin Institute has released the country’s first online alcohol tax and fee calculator to assist lawmakers looking for new revenue. The user-friendly tool is available at www.MarinInstitute.org.

The powerful program works for every state, as well as nationally and the District of Columbia. You just enter the amount of new tax (nickel or dime a drink, for example) for beer, wine or spirits (or any combination). Then the program instantly estimates additional annual revenues, based on a variety of factors specific to that particular jurisdiction.

Marin Institute developed the tool in response to inquiries from states looking for new revenues sources while holding Big Alcohol accountable for the enormous harm its products cause. Many states have not raised alcohol taxes or fees in decades. States with pending legislation to raise alcohol taxes or fees include: California, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Arizona, and Hawaii.

Visit the Tax / Fee Revenue Calculator on Marin Institute’s website to quickly estimate how much your state can raise in new alcohol taxes and fees.

News Updates: New Reports on the Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms Industries

The gun industry’s role in trafficking weapons to Mexico, the FDA set to regulate tobacco, and the new venues of alcohol advertising: the influence of corporations on population health is all over the news! Check out highlights from three new reports that focus on regulation.

ALCOHOL

Out-of-Home Alcohol Advertising: A 21st: Century Guide to Effective Regulation

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This report, by the Marin Institute (March 2009), the alcohol policy advocacy center, provides advocates and policymakers with suggestions for designing effective regulation of alcohol advertising at the state and local levels. With an eye on emerging trends in out-of-home advertising (e.g., digital billboards, advertising in public transit), this 12-page report focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of laws on the books in various jurisdictions across the U.S. It summarizes the factors advocates should consider when designing effective oversight of alcohol advertisements. With examples of restrictions likely and unlikely to withstand legal challenge and examples of model language from current laws on the books in cities in California and Pennsylvania, this report can help those interested in achieving effective regulation of alcohol advertising in their communities.


TOBACCO

The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

On April 2nd, the House of Representatives passed H.R. 1256, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act by a vote of 298 to 112. This act amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) to grant the FDA authority to regulate the manufacturing, marketing and sale of tobacco products. The bill adds a new chapter to the FFDCA to regulate tobacco products. Tobacco products would not be regulated under the “safe and effective” standard currently used for other products under the agency’s purview, but under a new standard—”appropriate for the protection of the public health.” With the support of President Obama, Senator Edward Kennedy is expected to soon introduce a version of the house bill in the Senate. Two tobacco-state senators, Richard Burr, a Republican, and Kay Hagan, a Democrat, both from North Carolina, have submitted a weaker substitute bill that would create a new tobacco regulatory agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. As the New York Times noted in an April 25th editorial, “such a fledgling agency would almost certainly be much less effective than the F.D.A., especially since the senators don’t propose to grant it the broad powers and ample resources provided by the House-passed bill.”

Key features of the House of Representatives-passed bill include:

  1. Restrictions on marketing and sales to youth
  2. Specific authority granted to FDA to restrict tobacco marketing
  3. Detailed disclosure required of ingredients, nicotine and harmful smoke constituents
  4. FDA allowed to require changes to tobacco products to protect the public health
  5. Strictly regulated “reduced harm” products
  6. Requirement for bigger, better health warnings
  7. FDA activity funding through a user fee on manufacturers of cigarettes, cigarette tobacco and smokeless tobacco, allocated by market share

For a special report on the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act from the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, go to: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/reports/fda/summary.shtml.


GUNS

Exporting Gun Violence: How Our Weak Gun Laws Arm Criminals in Mexico and America

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The Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence has issued a new report on the problem recently reported in the New York Times (“Loopholes to let gun smuggling to Mexico flourish,” April 14, 2009) entitled, “Exporting Gun Violence: How Our Weak Gun Laws Arm Criminals in Mexico and America.” Arguing that same laws that allow gun trafficking into Mexico have long allowed trafficking of guns to American criminals, the Brady campaign supports new laws that make background checks mandatory for all gun purchases and beefing up the authority of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) to enforce laws.

In the report, the Brady Campaign urges U.S. leaders to look further than just enforcement of existing laws, and strengthen American gun laws to make it harder for Mexican criminals to arm themselves with U.S. firearms. The report stresses the urgent need for stronger gun laws that make it more difficult for military-style assault weapons and other guns to be sold by American gun dealers to gun traffickers who take guns over the border into Mexico, supplying weapons to fuel the violent drug cartels.

New Reports on Food, Alcohol and Tobacco Marketing

In the last few months, government and advocacy organizations have released new reports on the impact of tobacco marketing, inequities in how grocery chains serve low-income neighborhoods, and the alcohol industry’s compliance with its own voluntary guidelines. To help readers keep up, we summarize some of this summer’s publications and provide links to the full reports.

 

As elected officials, public health researchers and advocates increasingly recognize that corporate policies and practices have a major influence on health, Corporations and Health Watch readers may have trouble keeping up with the many reports on the subject. Since these reports often appear in the “gray literature” and are not centrally indexed, it’s easy to miss information that could inform research or practice.  To assist readers in this task, CHW summarizes a few recent reports; we do not review their claims or assess their methodologies.

Bloomberg M. Press Release: Mayor Bloomberg and Shaquille O’neal Announce New Food Standards For City Agencies, September 19, 2008.

On September 19th, New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and NBA basketball player Shaquille O’Neal announced the launch of New York City’s new food standards designed to improve the nutritional quality of the 225 million snacks and meals served by City agencies each year. These standards make New York City the first major US city to establish nutrition standards for all food purchased or served by city agencies. The new standards cover snacks and meals served in places such as schools, senior centers, homeless shelters, child care centers, after school programs, correctional facilities, public hospitals and parks. The standards mandate City agencies to serve only healthier beverages such as skim or 1 percent milk (with exceptions for babies), phase out deep frying, include two servings of fruits and vegetables in every lunch and dinner, lower salt content and increase the amount of fiber in meals.

Blue Ribbon Commission on L.A.’s Grocery Industry and Community Health.  Feeding our Communities.  A Call for Standards for Food Access and Job Quality in Los Angeles Grocery Industry. Los Angeles, July 2008.  Available in [pdf]

The Alliance for Healthy and responsible Grocery Stores, a city-wide Los Angeles coalition of 25 community, faith-based, labor, and environmental organizations last July released “Feeding Our Communities: A Call for Standards for Food Access and Job Quality in Los Angeles’ Grocery Industry”. Based on public hearings in which residents, industry experts, academics, workers and clergy gave testimony regarding the practices of L.A.’s grocery industry, the report describes the growing disparities between the industry’s treatment of L.A.’s better off and poor communities.  The report presents evidence that LA supermarket chains ignore and mistreat the area’s low-income communities. The Alliance expects to propose citywide legislation that would establish uniform standards for grocery stores in Los Angeles, ensuring that low income neighborhoods receive more equitable treatment.

Federal Trade Commission. Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents A Review of Industry Expenditures, Activities, and Self-Regulation. A Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: Federal Trade Commission, July 2008.  Available in [pdf]

From the FTC press release on the report:
“The Federal Trade Commission today announced the results of a study on food marketing to children and adolescents. The report, Marketing Food to Children and Adolescents: A Review of Industry Expenditures, Activities, and Self-Regulation, finds that 44 major food and beverage marketers spent $1.6 billion to promote their products to children under 12 and adolescents ages 12 to 17 in the United States in 2006. The report finds that the landscape of food advertising to youth is dominated by integrated advertising campaigns that combine traditional media, such as television, with previously unmeasured forms of marketing, such as packaging, in-store advertising, sweepstakes, and Internet. These campaigns often involve cross-promotion with a new movie or popular television program. Analyzing this data, the report calls for all food companies “to adopt and adhere to meaningful, nutrition-based standards for marketing their products to children under 12.”

Kolish ED, Peeler CL.  Changing the Landscape of Food and Beverage Advertising: The Children’s Food and Beverage Initiative in Action.  Arlington, VA: Council of Better Business Bureaus, July 2008.  Available at: www.nestle.com

From the Executive Summary:
During July through December 2007, the six companies scheduled to implement during this period, Campbell Soup Company, The Coca-Cola Company, the Hershey Company, Kraft Foods Global, Inc., Mars, and Unilever, successfully implemented their pledges in which they committed either to not engage in child-directed advertising or to feature only better-for-you products in child-directed advertising.

  • No child-directed advertising. Based on our review, Coca-Cola, Hershey and Mars did not engage in child-directed advertising as they had pledged.
  • Advertising only for better-for-you products. Based on our review, Kraft limited all, and Campbell and Unilever limited virtually all, of their child-directed advertising to better-for-you products as specified in their pledges.

Campbell reported, and the BBB separately observed, that during the initial start up period, it had overlooked removing, primarily on its child-directed company-owned websites, a relatively small amount of content that referenced or displayed products that do not (or did not then) meet its nutrition guidelines. These problems have been remedied. Its television advertising, which represented a substantially larger amount of its media expenditures, was otherwise compliant with its pledge.

  • The BBB found that Unilever, while otherwise fully in compliance, had overlooked removing a couple of products, out of many, from its child-directed company-owned website. It has corrected this issue.

During July through December 2007, Burger King Corp., Cadbury Adams, General Mills, Kellogg Company, McDonald’s, and PepsiCo began the process of implementing their pledges. Many of them, ahead of schedule, implemented their pledges to a significant degree by limiting or changing what they advertised to children, or by early implementation of other parts of their pledges, such as product placement commitments.

Langlois, A. and Crossley, R.    Proof of the Pudding: Benchmarking Ten of the World’s Largest Food Companies’ Response to Obesity and Related Health Concerns. New York: JP Morgan,  April 2008. Available in [pdf]

In April 2008, JP Morgan Limited released a report in which it evaluated ten major food companies against a best practice framework developed by Insight Investment and the International Business Leaders Forum ‘HEAL’ partnership, published in 2007: ‘A Recipe for Success’.

The report includes the key components of a comprehensive corporate response to consumer health and obesity challenges. All companies were initially evaluated on the basis of their public disclosure and assigned a score for the quality of reporting: sources used included annual reports, SEC filings, corporate responsibility reports or similar, websites.

Researchers offered to meet with managers of all the companies to discuss initial findings and provide a comprehensive explanation of their strategies and program. Seven companies took the opportunity to meet while Cadbury, Heinz and Kraft were not in a position to meet. Final analysis and score for performance completed on the basis of additional information provided in company meetings. Companies sent final provisional scores and offered the opportunity to review and provide additional information, which several did.

Marin Institute.  Why Big Alcohol Can’t Police Itself A Review of Advertising Self-regulation in the Distilled Spirits Industry.  Marin Institute, September 2008.  Available in [pdf]

In this September 2008 report, the Marin Institute analyzes the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS) Code of Responsible Marketing Practices reports from 2004-2007. The Federal Trade Commission relies upon a system of voluntary self-regulation to ensure responsible marketing practices by the alcohol industry. This report publishes for the first time a systematic review of the DISCUS oversight process, and concludes that the process is inherently biased and consistently fails to protect the public from irresponsible advertising.

National Cancer Institute.  The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use.  NCI Tobacco Control Monograph Series. No 19.  Washington DC, National Institutes of Health, July 2008.  Available in [pdf]

src=”uploads/images/old_archives/img/clip_image012_0000.gif” alt=”Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use” hspace=”10″ vspace=”5″ width=”131″ height=”197″ align=”right” />Summarized from page vii of report:  This 684 page report is the most current and comprehensive distillation of the scientific literature on media communications in tobacco promotion and tobacco control. It synthesizes findings from the disciplines of marketing, psychology, communications, statistics, epidemiology, and public health and was compiled by five scientific editors, 23 authors, and 62 external peer reviewers. The report has six main parts. Part 1 frames the rationale for report’s organization and presents the key issues and conclusions of the research as a whole and of the individual chapters. Part 2 explores tobacco marketing—the range of media interventions used by the tobacco industry to promote its products, such as brand advertising and promotion, as well as corporate sponsorship and advertising. This section also evaluates the evidence for the influence of tobacco marketing on smoking behavior and discusses regulatory and constitutional issues related to marketing restrictions. Part 3 explores how both the tobacco control community and the tobacco industry have used news and entertainment media to advocate their positions and how such coverage relates to tobacco use and tobacco policy change. The section also appraises evidence of the influence of tobacco use in movies on youth smoking initiation. Part 4 focuses on tobacco control media interventions and the strategies, themes, and communication designs intended to prevent tobacco use or encourage cessation, including opportunities for new media interventions. This section also synthesizes evidence on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns in reducing smoking. Part 5 discusses tobacco industry efforts to diminish media interventions by the tobacco control community and to use the media to oppose state tobacco control ballot initiatives and referenda. Finally, Part 6 examines possible future directions in the use of media to promote or to control tobacco use and summarizes research needs and opportunities.

United Food and Commercial Workers International Union.  The Two Faces of Tesco.  Washington, D.C.: United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, June 2008. Available in [pdf]

From the press release for the report:
In June 2008, the United Food and Commercial Workers Union, a US union representing 1.3 million workers in the retail food market, launched a UK campaign to expose The Two Faces of Tesco. The report examines how Tesco operates in the United Kingdom, its home base, and the United States, and compares Tesco policies and rhetoric with its practices.

At a London press launch chaired by UK Member of Parliament Jon Cruddas the union said that it is stepping up a campaign already begun in the United States to shame Tesco to talks on union recognition and employee pay and benefits.

The UFCW seeks to represent some of the lowest-paid and least secure retail workers in the USA, more than half of whom are women, and has been seeking talks with Tesco for two years since the world’s third-largest retailer announced its entry into the US grocery market. All attempts have so far fallen on deaf ears, reports the UFCWU, and Tesco launched its chain of Fresh & Easy supermarkets in 2007 as non-union stores. UFCW says that it is seeking the chance for dialogue, to build the same constructive partnership that Tesco enjoys in the UK with the shop workers’ union USDAW.

Alcopops: State by State Battle to End Corporate Tax Fraud

Simon Rosen and Michele Simon from the Marin Institute describe how Alcopops, sweetened alcohol beverages, slip through a US corporate tax loophole, allowing the drinks to be marketed like beer. They call for the reclassification of alcopops as an alcohol spirit and provide an analysis of the potential health benefits of such a change.

Simon Rosen, MA, is a research analyst and Michele Simon, JD, MPH is the director of research and policy at Marin Institute, an alcohol industry watchdog group based in San Rafael, California

Alcopops are a relatively new product category in the United States. The alcohol industry labels the youth-friendly products “flavored malt beverages” to take advantage of more favorable tax rates for beer. Beer is taxed at much lower rates than are distilled spirits in the U.S. and is often sold in grocery and convenience stores, making it more widely available. Interestingly, in other countries, manufacturers do not call alcopops “malt beverages,” and indeed some companies proudly market their products as containing spirits. For example, while Smirnoff Ice is touted for containing vodka in the United Kingdom, the exact same brand in the U.S. is labeled as a malt beverage. No matter where they are sold, alcopops are sweetened, often bubbly and fruit-flavored, and designed to resemble soda pop or other soft drinks. Alcopops fuel the underage drinking epidemic by serving as a transition for young people from soft drinks to alcohol.

The proper regulatory classification in the U.S. for these products has become a matter of policy debate in recent years. Testing by the federal government in 2003 determined that the majority of the alcohol in alcopops is obtained from distilled spirits (1). Also, the drinks are often branded with spirit names, such as Smirnoff and Bacardi. Moreover, according to the U.S. Alcohol and Tobacco Trade and Tax Bureau (TTB), these drinks:

[E]xhibit little or no traditional beer or malt beverage character. … Brewers … remove the color, bitterness, and taste that are generally associated with beer. … This leaves a base product to which brewers add various flavors, which typically contain distilled spirits, to achieve the desired taste profile. (1).

Nevertheless, at the federal level, alcopops are classified as flavored malt beverages and taxed at the lower beer rate. A 2005 compromise ruling by TTB allows industry to make alcopops with up to 49 percent of the alcohol derived from distilled spirits, with the rest coming from beer, and still take advantage of the more lenient beer classification. (2) By making products that don’t taste or look like beer, and are not called beer, while still convincing regulators to classify alcopops as beer (making them more readily accessible to youth), the alcohol industry is engaging in a deceptive charade that can best be described as tax fraud. And that has sparked a national controversy.

Correcting the Deception:  Reclassifying Alcopops as Spirits

U.S. states have independent legal authority to classify alcohol products. Thus, all 50 states have their own laws that define the different categories of alcohol. Some state laws are in conflict with the federal ruling because in many states, the distinction between what can be labeled a beer and a spirit is clear, and the law does not allow for the 49/51 percent hybrid that the federal government has created.

Until recently, all states followed the federal government in classifying alcopops as beer. But thanks in large part to public outcry by advocates concerned with underage drinking, states have begun to reconsider this policy. Thus far, Maine, California, and Utah have decided to reclassify alcopops as distilled spirits and several other states are considering doing so. Essentially these states are correcting the error of regulators having misclassified alcopops for years.

Saving Lives and Money with Higher Alcopops Taxes

Because U.S. states tax distilled spirits at far higher rates than beer, correct classification would significantly increase the tax on the products. The exact change would differ considerably between states. In Oklahoma, for example, the increase would be $5.16 per gallon, but in others, such as South Dakota, the tax rise would be much smaller, only 65 cents per gallon. However in all states, taxes would increase, which could prove highly effective in reducing alcopops consumption, particularly among youth. (3) The academic literature shows that increasing taxes and prices causes drinkers to purchase and drink less alcohol. (4)

Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, France, the U.K., and most recently Australia have all significantly increased the tax on alcopops in the last few years, and other nations (such as the Netherlands and Finland) have considered proposals to do so.

For those countries for which data are available (Germany, the U.K., and Switzerland), the results suggest that alcopops consumption fell heavily after the taxes increased, and that decreased sales of alcopops were not substituted by other alcoholic beverages. (5, 6, 7)

Given the availability of these European consumption data, the Marin Institute research department undertook an analysis of each U.S. state to determine the cost savings, both in terms of lives and money. We determined the total impact nationally, if every state that could do so made the corresponding tax change. Assuming that drinkers in the U.S. respond similarly to tax increases as in other countries (and we have no reason to believe they wouldn’t), our results showed that taxing alcopops as spirits could significantly help curb underage drinking and its related costs. In New York for example, taxing alcopops as spirits could reduce consumption by 28 percent, saving 7 lives and $150 million in underage drinking costs annually. In the largest state, California, consumption levels would drop 35 percent and 21 lives and $437 million would be saved each year. Every state would see a significant impact.

While 29 states may be incorrectly taxing alcopops as beer instead of spirits, we limited our analysis to the 22 non-“control states” where the tax increase could be calculated. (About 18 “control states” have government monopolies over some alcoholic beverages, and in these states, a change in classification would be less predictable.) By excluding control states from our analysis, we are underestimating the potential national impact.

If alcopops were correctly taxed as spirits by all the states we examined, consumption would fall on average by 26 percent, and could prevent more than $1.5 billion in underage drinking costs, 72 deaths and more than 59,000 incidents of harm from underage drinking nationally (i.e., crime, high-risk sex, traffic collisions, etc.).

In addition, in the control states, reclassification to spirits would not only increase prices, but also greatly reduce distribution and availability of alcopops as they could be sold only through state-run liquor stores. Research suggests the impact of removing alcopops from convenience stores and supermarkets is likely to be highly effective in reducing both consumption and alcohol related problems. (8) Several control states are considering this policy change, with Utah leading the way by successfully reclassifying alcopops as distilled spirits in early 2008.

Racing Against a Powerful Industry

The policy reasons to correctly classify alcopops as distilled spirits are clear—underage drinking can be reduced, lives saved, and costs prevented. However, states have to act quickly because the alcohol industry is flexing its lobbying muscle to rewrite state laws. So far, under severe pressure from the alcohol industry, at least seven states that were incorrectly taxing alcopops as beer have passed laws to change the definition of alcopops to match the federal ruling allowing hybrid products, and therefore will maintain the status quo. The remaining states that can still make the correction must do so before the alcohol industry gets to the state legislatures to change the law in its favor. So we are engaged in a state-by-state race to protect youth.

In the spring of 2008, despite a valiant effort by advocates, a political battle over how to define alcopops in Maryland was lost. If industry continues on this path, the ability for the remaining states to reclassify alcopops will be severely threatened. At least twenty-one states currently have laws that indicate alcopops should be correctly classified as distilled spirits and not beer, and taxed and sold accordingly. These states must act now. Policymakers in Maine, California, and Utah have already demonstrated that the political will exists to make this critical change. Other U.S. states should waste no time in following their lead by stopping industry’s alcopops fraud.

References

(1) U.S. Department of the Treasury, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Federal Register, March 24, 2003. Notice No. 4. Vol.68, No. 56. Online: http://www.ttb.gov/alcohol/rules/ttbnotice_no4.pdf.

(2) U.S. Department of the Treasury, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Flavored Malt Beverage and Related Regulatory Amendments, 70 Federal Register 1 (January 3, 2005) (codified 27 CFR Parts 7 and 25).

(3) Grossman, M., Chaloupka, F.J., Saffer, H., Laixuthai, A., Effects of Alcohol Price Policy on Youth: A Summary of Economic Research. Journal of Research on Adolescence 4(2): 347-364. 1994.

(4) Chaloupka, F.J., Grossman, M., Saffer, H., The Effects of Price on Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems. Alcohol Res. Health 26(1): 22-34, 2003.

(5) Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung [BZgA], Alkoholkonsum der Jugendlichen in Deutschland 2004 bis 2007 [Consumption of Alcohol by young people in Germany 2004 to 2007]. Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung. 2007.

(6) Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs, UK trade info Alcohol Factsheet. Crown Copyright. 2007.

(7) Swiss Alcohol Board, 2007

(8) Babor TF, Caetano R, Casswell S, Edwards G, Giesbrecht N, Graham K, Grube J, Gruenewald P, Hill L, Holder H, Homel R, Osterberg E, Rehm J, Room R and Rossow I (2003)  Alcohol and Public Policy: No Ordinary Commodity; Research and Public Policy.  Oxford University Press.

 

Photo Credits:
1. Cian O’Donovan